50 mcs + 3 short answers/ essay questions (*application questions so think abt skills taught) Do questions after each chapter in book & review lecture notes. Find empirical articles: evaluate their methods and think of improvements/ come up with hypothesis. describe the different steps involved in the research process. define variable and describe the four categories of variables: situational, response, participant, and mediating variables. describe the different relationships between variables: positive, negative, curvilinear, and no relationship. compare and contrast nonexperimental and experimental research methods. distinguish between an independent variable and a dependent variable. discuss the three elements for inferring causation: temporal order, covariation of cause and effect, and elimination of alternative explanations. discuss the limitations of laboratory experiments and the advantage of using multiple methods of research. distinguish between construct validity, internal validity, and external validity www. notesolution. com.