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Studies the identification of emotions form facial expressions across cultures. Facial expression as universal, instead of socially learned. Description y conceptual definition provides the meaning of an abstract term y operational definition indicates how the concept is coded, measured or quantified. Explanation y establish predicative relationship y determine causality hallmark of explanation. Causality requires 3 kinds of evidence (cook and campbell, 1979): temporal precedence = cause precede effect, covariation = when the cause is present, the effect occurs when the cause is absent, the effect does not occur also. Dosage effects: alternative explanation = nothing other than the cause could be responsible of the effect. Basic and applied research y basic research: addresses question about the nature of abstract psychological processes and ideas y applied research: addresses questions that are thought to be of immediate relevance in solving practical problems. Observation: balance b/w focus and openness, serendipity effect. Theory: often form the basis of a new, testable hypothesis.

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