June 7 Lecture

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9 Apr 2012
Elements of Good Hypothesis
-a relationship between variables should exist to be able to falsify hypothesis
Hypothesis: “The dark and dreary environment during the winter leads to depression”
>Two research hypotheses/ predictions that might stem from this general hypothesis
1. Sun labs (artificial) putting people in conditions where they’re exposed to sunlight,
or more epidemiological study; Comparing City like Vancouver to Arizona, and
compare levels of depression.
-look at literature
-derive logical/ refutable hypothesis
2. 5 hours of artificial sunlight leads to lower scores of depression in clinical settings.
*every study is flawed in some way; but how to studies converge, and what they are saying
when they converge.
Variables: Four General Categories
-You want to first determine whether there is some standardized measure between two
-Standardized measures for most psychological disorders i.e. stress, general health, anxiety,
memory, etc
>Situational Variables
-students in university compared to students in high school
-people in the workplace vs people who are unemployed
>Response Variables
-measured in terms of some form of manipulation i.e. score on memory test, or certain
behaviour elicited in response to a stressful situation in lab
>Participant/ Subject Variables
-If we take entire class of people and we want to conduct a study on test anxiety. Let’s say
that we randomly assign people into two different groups,w ant to determine if it makes a
difference if you are in crowded/ non-crowded room. Fact that all are coming into
classroom with different gpa’s/ studying/ male or female/ age – all subject variables
-if we are randomly assigning people into groups, that theoretically takes care of subject
variables and differences
>Mediating Variable
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