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Lecture 2

PSYB07H3 Lecture 2: PSYB07 Lecture 2


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB07H3
Professor
Dwayne Pare
Lecture
2

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PSYB07 - Data Analysis in Psychology
Lecture 2 - Descriptive Statistics
Readings: Chapter 2
Lecture Outline
Descriptive Statistics vs. Inferential Statistics
DS can be something that describes data from a sample/population
IN is used to try to infer from the sample data what the population might
think
Distribution
Central Tendency
Distribution
Modality
How many peaks does the distribution have?
Mode -> peak of the distribution
Modality -> # of peaks
Unimodal
Distribution with one clear peak or
most frequent value. The values
increase at first, rising to a single
peak where they then decrease. The
“mode” in unimodal refers to the
local maximum in a chart
Bimodal
A continuous probability distribution
with two different modes. These
appear as distinct peaks (local
maxima) in the probability density
function
Multimodal
Distribution that has multiple modes
(thus two or more “peaks”).

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Amodal (uniform)
Symmetry
Is the distribution the same on both sides?
Skewness
Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical
An asymmetrical distribution is skewed
The body of the data is shifted to one side
One of the tails is longer than the other
The direction of skew is the direction that the tail is pointing
Positively skewed
Lots of the body is on the negative side
E.g., when students do poorly in the class
Negatively Skewed
Lots of the body is on the positive side
E.g., when students do really well in the class
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Kurtosis
How pointy or flat is the distribution?
Kurtosis - how pointy or flat the shape of the distribution is
Where is the data clustered?
Need to know because it changes the analysis we need to use
Mesokurtic
Normal distribution
Platykurtic
Leptokurtic
Normal Distribution/Bell Curve
Single peak
Symmetrical
The graph is telling us in respect to marks is that there is a little bit of people who did
really well (right side), a little bit of people who didn’t do so well (left side) and in the
middle is people who did averagely
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