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Lecture 11

PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: No. 11 Group Raf, Order Of Friars Minor Capuchin, Gordon Allport

Course Code
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Lecture 1 - Introduction
- how you think about others and how others think about you
- social psychology definition Gordon Allport, influential researcher
- thoughts, feelings and behaviours are ABCs of social psych (affects: any kind of emotional
experience; behaviour: broadly defined, anything outside yourself that others observe;
cognition: how we think about others
- Defn influenced by actual, imagined or implied presence of [others]
example: video of two monkeys (capuchins) in cages where an experimenter does a basic
learning experiment. If the monkey takes the token (given by the experimenter) and gives it
back, they get a reward (monkey sees what other monkey is receiving). If other monkey gets
a grape and he gets a cucumber, he throws it out of the cage/doesnt take it and eventually
doesnt take the token (inequity aversion). [Capuchins like cucumbers, but like grapes even
Lecture 2 Methods and Social Cognition
- what makes psychology cool? Things we test are in the mind (not observable, such as
length of leaves or bugs) and that is unique
- Self reports: straight forward, ask things like how do you feel now? traditionally was
done in pencil and paper but now is used in computers, can also straight up interview
- Reaction time tasks: speed of doing various tasks, reason was that a Dutch scientist
basically identified that the harder a task is, longer it takes to do it (and this means the
longer it takes, the more distant concepts are from each other)
- Priming: essentially elicit a mood in you or make a certain concept available in your mind
[either subliminal (which is something you wouldnt see, depending on stimulus which can
range from 30milliseconds-100) or explicit (aware)]
- Non/Verbal Behaviour: close observation, someone sitting close to you checking down
things; better to record
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- Neuroscience: MRI (fMRI) is good for localizing; brain-damaged patients shows how people
observe social world
- Psychophysiology: you can put a bunch of electrodes or have them drool and look at stress
responses at various activities
- Variable types: independent variable (IV) predictor only implies causality to DV when
- three designs:
- Correlation: if you are correlating two things they are both dependent, random sampling
(ex: utsc students’ emails, assign numbers and select 100 random students); ice cream sales
and amount of drowning are correlated because both occur in summer, doesnt mean that
ice cream sales actually affects drowning rates, theres a relationship
- Proper interpretation: if you have a correlation study they either predict each other or co
vary with each other but cannot say they cause each other
- Quasi-experimental designs: IV is not manipulated, use known groups (men and women
are known because they exist, you dont assign people these groups); need to know how one
groups responses relates to another groups responses (which is why you need
comparison/control groups)
- Experimental designs: have to create changes (manipulate IV)
- MDMA (ecstasy), (profs friend from Berkley) randomly gave people MDMA or a pure
amphetamine (placebo) and looked at six basic emotion faces; found that people were not
more accurate of guessing others faces emotions when on MDMA, but were significantly
less accurate when perceiving anger (??)
- controlled cognition: take a test, put focus down on test; automatic cognition: associative
processes, think about doctors and also think about nurses (dont mean to think about
them, but is relevant)
- if I have a gun, it catches your eye out of the whole scene (pre-attentive processes)
- gaze detection: we usually look at face that is looking back at us
- Schemas: set of expectations; sometimes we dont notice things that dont fit schema and
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even interpret things differently
- if student thinks teacher is gifted they will act differently towards them (self-fulfilling
prophecies shown in educational settings)
- Elenor Rosch: taught us how we think and categorize, essentially she argued that we
categorize things based on prototypes
- more distant it is from prototype of chair, longer it takes to recognize it as a chair
- thinking about one concept, activates related concepts (unrelated concepts are harder to
think of)
- Suppression effects when prof said dont think of white bear for the next minute, you
think of it; the very act of not wanting to think about the white bear, makes it more
accessible, suppressed thought becomes hyper accessible
- start with anchor and adjust away from it (elephants pregnancy, compare to humans (9
months) elephant should be about 12 months since its bigger (in actuality its two years)
- simulation heuristic, in a hockey game and not a lot of people and sit closer to the front,
the seat you were sitting in before won $10,000. Because that seat was yours, you can
simulate winning which makes you feel worse; people who miss their flights by five minutes
feel worse than thirty minutes, because they envision getting to the gate more and simulate
it more
Lecture 3 The Self part one
- the self is a concept (something you can think about) but more broadly defined in social
psych, individual consciousness of ones own identity
- Mark test, when you look at mirror do you see it as yourself, or another person (self
awareness present/absent); put paint on baby’s cheek and have them engage in a room with
a mirror (does baby reach out to baby in mirror or their own cheek) prior to one years old
babys dont look at own cheek but at the mirror, orangutan has a sense of self (most
primates dont pass the mark test)
- any animal can have the three levels of self, but we reserve it for animals with high level
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