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Lecture 5

lecture 5 and 6


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Lecture
5

Page:
of 3
Lec 5 and 6
Fundamental Attribution Error; Jones and Harris study
Distinctiveness is talking about similar types of situations but slightly diff stimuli
Consistency is basically do we see the person forget their keys (do the exact same
behaviour) multiple times?
Treer social stress test. Your suppose to come into the lab, and give a speech and verbal
math test. The researchers then determine your self-serving attributions
Just World Hypothesis- each ind believes more or less in this. It quells anxiety, makes you
feel like you have control over the world but unfortunately, research shows that is predicts
rejection in victims. Sometimes used as a measure of the prejudice of ppl of low SES. Can
lead us to blame ppl for the bad things that happen to them.
Falso consensus study on cheating/ stealing showed that ppl who stole or cheated believed
many others would also cheat just like they did. Those who did not cheat or steal assumed
others didnt either, just like they didnt. So shows that ppl assume ppls attitudes/beliefs
are same as their own, when in reality they may not
Ultimate Attribution Error; In group- any group, identity, or ethnicity that you belong to.
Outgroup- those that you dont belong to. We make more judgments about ppls behaviour
and its correspondence to their group when they were outgroups.
Social Psych Lec 6 STUDY RESULTS of shock
Obedience was reduced when victim was more closer, and effects were more immediate
The number of obedience when experimenter was present was 3 times more great than
when experimenter was talking over telephone
STANFORD COUNTY PRISON EXPERIMENT
Prisoner 819- quit, too grueling, lost himself, wanted others to know he wasnt bad, when
others were told to chant that 819 was the reason they were being punished. Broke down to
tears.
A first most fought, then they broke down forcing to be released, and other prisoners
actually began being model prisoners
3 types of guards, sadistic who were degrading, tough but fair ones, and sympathetic ones
The guards could literally dictate the prisoners, they had so much control.
416 represented disobedience went on a hunger strike. He was a threat to the solidarity of
the guards n prisoners. They used diff methods to dominate him, make him feel inferior.
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Set other prisoners against him. If he didnt eat his sausages, which were cold and dirty, he
would be punished.
The researcher just got so into it, that he forgot that it was an experiment. Could not
distinguish from the experiment and reality. That it was cruel, and so he stopped it after
six days of the experiment.
Participants did suffer, but their effects were situation bound. They were able to rebound to
their mental psychical health. They reported that they were fine after, that the experiment
brought them a whole new understanding of how ppl could so easily become the roles
assigned to them. Research says: THE POWER OF SITUATIONS. How situations affect us
more than we think.
Lecture 9! Social Psych
Implicit social influence- meaning associations we make. When you are influence to change
your behaviour by increased social beliefs in your working behaviour.
Bargh and Chartran study:
Trying to show social beliefs affect you without you really knowing. They had groups of ind
look at works projected onto a screen. They stereotyped old ppl, and then they had a set
which didnt stereotype young or old ind. Wanted to make the stereotypes of elderly more
apparent in ppls working memory. Timed amount of time ppl walked down the hallway.
Hypothesized it would take u longer to walk down hallway after seeing the stereotype.
Found those who primed w elderly stereotype walked slower, than those who saw the
neutral stereotypes. So showed it was unconsciously occurred, cuz the stereotypes were
present in ppls working memory.
Contagion is the cause for mass psychogenic illness
Sherifs Dot study : after this ppl started to look into situations that increase informational
social influence
In Sherifs ppl didnt have comparisons to results, whereas Aschs line study did. In Achs ppl
conformed to fit others answers 75% of the time. So why did ppl conform? Social impact
theory tries to understand this. Strength- how imp the group is shows how strongly u are
likely to conform. Immediacy- how close the group is to you, proximally like physically if
their nearby and egging you on you conform more often. Number- group size (larger group=
more conformity).
Higher SES are more disengaged when talking to you, then fidget more, check cell phone,
etc.
Rape victims who felt that they had higher perceived control had less incidents of PTSD six
months later.
Every great shift in humanity has started with minority dessent.
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Post Decision Dissonance Brehm study; used housewives asked them to rate appliances
they wanted. They took top 2 choices and randomly assigned ind to an item. Then asked
them later on to rate the appliances again. You change your initial rating more to match
what you have, to value the thing you got and devalue the things you didnt get to decrease
the dissonance.
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