PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Discrepancy Theory, Frontal Lobe, Stroop Effect

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May 17, 2012
Readings CH.5
- The Self an individual consciousness of one’s own identity
- The self is the awareness of who you are
- The self consists of your behaviours, thoughts and feelings
- Self awareness awareness of the self as an entity that is distinct (different) from others and
the environment
- Tested with the Mark Test (also called the Rouge Test)
- The rouge test is a self-recognition test that identifies a human child's ability to recognize a
reflection in a mirror as his or her own. Using rouge makeup, an experimenter surreptitiously
places a dot on the nose and/or face of the child. The child is then placed in front of a mirror and
their reactions are monitored; depending on the child's development, distinct categories of
responses are demonstrated.
- If the child touches his own face/nose (where the mark is placed) shows self recognition
passes the mark test
- Passing the mark test usually after the infant is 6 months, by 1 ½ the child is able to recognize
the mark accurately
Levels of Self
- Minimal Self Conscious experience of the self as distinct (separate ) from the environment
- How do I know I exist? Double stimulation if you rub your arm with your hands you feet both
the rubbing on your hand that’s doing the rubbing and the arm that is receiving the rubbing
- However you rub your hands near a podium, you only feel your hand against the podiums (not
what the podium feels) singular stimulation
- Objectified Self cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own for others attention
- The ability to think of yourself as an object to reflect on oneself and then others
- Symbolic self (Narrative self) ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself
through language (how my life changed, important events in my life etc)
The Self Concept
- The self concept of who you are
Everything you know about yourself
Includes qualities, identities, social roles, personality traits, values
- Self Schema cognitive representation of the self concept
The concepts/words in your semantic network that are associated with your
sense of self
Guides processing of self related information
- How do we measure the self concept?
Self report surveys 20 statement test (most common)
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The TST is a long-standing psychological and social psychological "test" for use in regards
to one's "sense of self." In particular, it helps identify those self-desiginations which may
be due more to our "roles" than who we really are or could be.
1. Physical description: I’m tall, have blue eyes...etc.
2. Social Roles: We are all social beings whose behavior is shaped to some extent by
the roles we play. Such roles as student, housewife, or member of the football
team not only help others to recognize us but also help us to know what is
expected of us in various situations.
3. Personal Traits: These are a third dimension of our self-descriptions. “I’m
impulsive...I’m generous...I tend to worry a lot”...etc.
- Self complexity the depth and complexity of yourself concept
- Operartionalzied as the number of distinct aspects used to define the self concept
- 1977 study by Markus participants completed a reaction time task, where they were presented
with personality traits and asked to hit a button labeled "Me" if the trait was self-descriptive and
another button labeled "Not Me" if the trait was not self-descriptive. When participants
classified a trait that they had previously said described themselves, they were faster to
categorize the trait with the "Me" button than participants who had previously said the trait was
only moderately descriptive. The faster response time of people who felt the trait was self-
descriptive reflects an association of that trait with their self-schema. Focused on traits -
independent/autonomous vs dependent/submissive.
- Gave participants a list of adjectives and asked them to state “Me” or “Not Me” when the
adjective described them
- The experimenter found response times (on average) for independent traits very quick to
respond as “ME”
- Aschematics (neutral) on the hand took a little bit more time to respond as “ME”
- Dependent people took a lot longer than independent and aschematic responders
- Global vs contextualized self
- Global I am ____________ - Global self concept things that always describe you ( I am
always friendly)
- Contextual I am _____________ in this situation but I am _________ in another situation (I am
very organized in my professional life, but disorganized in my personal life
- Behaviour then may change according to situation
- If you get college/uni students complete a contextual 20 statement test before going into a test
or achievement domain, if they don’t perform well in that domain they don’t show as much of a
drop in self esteem after performing poorly on the test
- contextual 20 statement - who you are changes in different contexts ( we can become a
different person depending on the situation and different people )
- Working self concept a subset of yourself concept that is presently accessible (e.g. when you
go into a lecture all the aspect of a “student” comes activated)
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