PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Orbicularis Oculi Muscle, Zygomaticus Major Muscle, Peripheral Nervous System

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June 18, 2012
Lecture 6 - Emotion and Morality
Readings textbook pp. 91 -96
o Cognition is strongly influenced by our emotions and emotions is a form of cognition
o Mortality decision making in emotionally context
o Emotion a brief (4 min) physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt
subjectively and prepares a person for action
o All emotions have action tendencies
o What is not an emotion
moods (is just a general state that has emotional components but is not a emotion
as moods last a long time and sometimes you don’t know why you feel good (no
reason/lack of stimulus, )
sentiments - expressing sentiments, it’s more of general feeling and can last a
long time
personality traits - ones personality is not a specific emotion that one had not
thinking about the stimulus that causes an emotion “he an angry person” vs “he
found out that the study group got cancelled and he got really angry”
Arousal - (e.g. sleepiness, blood flow) more of a general state and does not
come from a stimulus (if it comes from a stimulus than it is an emotion)
o Moods are diffuse don’t need to have an eliciting cause, don’t need a target (thus don’t call for
action) and moods persist over time
Classes of emotions
6 basic emotions -
- These Basic emotions are by Ekmin, he argued that these 6 emotions are the fundamental
building blocks of everything we experience as an emotion
Fear, Anger, Disgust, Sadness, Happiness and Surprise
- Complex emotions blends of basic emotions
o Positive emotions - positively valenced emotions (mostly complex
o Gratitude (express appreciation) , contentment (satisfaction of what you have and what
you don’t have) , amusement (humor), desire (something you want- approach
motivated emotion ) and love
o Some people argue that love is not an emotion as its long term and a stimulus is not
always required
o Self conscious emotions - emotions tied/elicited among the self
Pride, shame, guilt and embarrassment
Measuring emotions
- Self report
- Facial EMG muscles in our face that are tied in with our emotions
Lavator Labil disgust
2
Currogator supercili (brow muscles ends up covering your eyes) negative affect
Orbicularis oculi (circular muscles around the eye) and zygomaticus major muscle
positive affect
- Captures subtle facial movements
- Best used for situations where facial movement is not visually detectable
- Obstrusive measurement technique
- Facial action coding system (FACS) - is a system to taxonomize human facial expressions,
Movements of individual facial muscles are encoded by FACS from slight different instant
changes in facial appearance.
- zygomaticus major muscles are involved in all positive affect (emotions)
- Conflict fake (only zygomaticus muscle activity) vs. genuine smiles (zygomaticus and
Orbicularis oculi activity)
Components of emotion
- Temporal component, Physiological component ,cognitive component and Behavioral
component
- an emotion is a universal, functional, reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily
integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomelogical, and behavioral channels to facilitate a
fitness enhancing, environment shaping response to a current situation
Physiology and emotion
- Peripheral nervous system everything outside of your brain and spinal cord
- PNS is divided into 1. Sympathetic and 2. Parasympathic nervous system
- Heart rate, skin conductance, projection period( time b/w your heart beats and your heart
expels blood) and finger temperature (more relaxed your are finger temp increases)
- Physiology= intensity of emotions arousal
- Central Nervous system certain areas of the brain that are equipped
Hippocampus Laughter
Limbic system Amygala fear and anger
Frontal cortex everything else
James Lange Theory of emotion
- Specific bodily (physio) response tells us what emotion we are feeling
- emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events
- According to this theory, witnessing an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction. Your
emotional reaction depends upon how you interpret those physical reactions. For example,
suppose you are walking in the woods and you see a grizzly bear. You begin to tremble and your
heart begins to race. The James-Lange theory proposes that you will interpret your physical
reactions and conclude that you are frightened ("I am trembling, therefore I am afraid.")
- If your sad, you should smile which would make you feel better
3
- Study feedback to the system method 1. Tell participants to pose face in certain ways
(which specific muscles to move around) 2. Ask them what expressions they are demonstrations
and then 3. Measure physiological responses
- Results participants were readily able to demonstrate their emotions
Cognitive components
- Cognitive appraisal the meaning of an event affects our emotional response it
- (e.g. getting punched someone punches you to hurt you you get angry however, if someone
by mistake hits you –then that doesn’t evoke anger emotions )
- Key appraisals
o self relevance how relevant an event is to you
o goal congruence how much does the event co aside with your own goals
o blame and responsibility
o Certainty how sure you are about the appraisal (how correctly you appraise a
situation)
o Coping ability how much your able to cope with a situation
TWO-Factor Theory (opponent of James Lange Theory)
- 1. Physiological Arousal is generalized, NOT specific
- 2. We apply a label to the arousal (amplitude of response)based on cognitive appraisal
- how You feel aroused and then you wonder why your aroused (which you try to explain), that
explanation leads to your emotion
- If we didn’t have words for sadness and fear then those emotions would not exist
- Perceives the bear, heart starts beating “my heart is beating because I am afraid of the bear)
- Study Schacter & Singer (1964) method 1. Give people heart rate increasing pill or placebo
(sugar pill) 2. Have them complete a survey with very personal questions 3. An actor gets angry
at the questionnaire 4. What does the participant do?
- Results aroused participants expressed greater anger than the actor while non-aroused
participants didn’t get angry
TWO Factor theory of Love
- Builds on Schachter and Singer’s 2 factor theory
- The bridge study (Dutton and Aron) 1. Males crossed Richkety Bridge 2. Approached by
attractive female experimenter 3. At the end of study, gave them her phone number (call them
up for any questions)
- Dependent variable How many males called
- When people are the solid bridge they rarely called her
- When males were approached on the Rchkecty bridge they were more likely to call the
attractive female experimenter
James Vs 2 Factor
1. J-L says specific emotions are distinct and real
2. 2 factor says specific emotions are an illusion of appraisal