PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: J.Lo By Jennifer Lopez, Cognitive Dissonance, Implicit Attitude

32 views6 pages
Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
Department
Course
Page:
of 6
1
May 26, 2012
Lecture 4: Attitudes, Persuasion, Conformity and Dissent
Readings- (CH.6)
- What are attitudes a like or dislike that influences our behaviour toward someone or
something
- Valence of an attitude an idea or belief that you hold positivity in which you subscribe
something positively or negatively
- ABCs
Affective - what you feel about something
Behavioural what are you likely to do?
Cognitive what you think about something
- Valence bipolar dimension good (better) vs bad (worse)
- Strength intensity of an attitude
- You can have similar valences of attitudes but differ in strength (both are independent
dimensions )
- 2 types of attitude- explicit and implicit
- Explicit attitude attitudes you can state in words , fully aware of your attitudes
- Implicit attitude stored as an association in your semantic network = associating between the
object and the concepts of good or bad - peace, flowers represent good things while war,
famine represent bad things
- The common belief - What you believe about something will directly affect and predict your
behaviour of that something however, your behaviour toward something can also change your
attitude of that something
- Cognitive dissonance (Festinger) a change in people’s behaviour alters attitudes
- Dissonance unpleasant feeling of tension that occur when you experience contradictory
attitudes (conflict that causes conflict you really enjoy Jennifer Lopez music however your
best friend really dislikes her music = tension)
- To relive this tension you change your attitude since you cannot change your behaviour or,
you reappraise the situation so that your behaviour no longer indicates anything about your
attitudes
- over justification effect if one can justify an attitude inconsistent behaviour, then they will not
experience dissonant feeling
- How we act, changes our behaviour
- STUDY (Festinger & Carlsmith) participants were told to turn wooden pegs for 40 miniutes
(exteremly boring tasks)
- After the 40 min, during the de-briefing of the experiment they mention 1/3 condition to each
participant
a. “Alright I’ll give you $20 extra, if you tell the next participate t that this experiment
was actually really interesting and enjoyable”
b. “Alright I’ll give you $1 extra, if you tell the next participate that this experiment
was actually really interesting and enjoyable”
c. control condition just a thank you for participating
- one week after the experiment, experimenters called all the participants and asked how they
found the experiment and the quality of the experiment
- results the people who got paid $1 enjoyed the experiment most try to become congruent
with the lie they told and the behaviour they represented
2
- $20 condition was more of a reappraisal condition
- Post decision dissonance dissonance aroused after making a decision typically reduced by
enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative or devaluing the rejected alternatives
- STUDY Post decision dissonance , Brehm 1956 housewife comes and uses 1 of 3 desirable
kitchen items toaster, coffee-maker and waffle iron
- Housewives rated the items (most liked to least liked ), the experimenters took the top 2 that
housewives choose and randomly gave the wives one of the top 2 items they had selected
- 20 min later - One more time rating of the same items = observe the changes in rating after
receiving one of the item
- Results the item chosen for them mild increase in rating, and the ratings for what they
didn’t’ get were much lower
- Liking positively valenced attitude
- Balance theory to reduce cognitive dissonance, we desire to keep a positive “balance”
between our opinions and those of others
- In balance = (+) +(+) + (+) = positive (you like your friend, and both like JLO)
- Un- balance = (+) + (+) = (-) = negative ( you like JLO, you like your friend but your friend dislikes
JLO = imbalance)
- Few options you can try to change your friend’s attitude about JLO or you can change your
attitudes about the issue (in this case JLO) or you can change how much you like your friend
(now it won’t matter if you and your friend’s opinions match)
- Attitude change persuasion
- Persuasion - the altering of an existing attitude or the adaption of a new attitude
- Routes of persuasion
Central route when a person invests the necessary decision making time and effort to
evaluate the evidence and logic behind each persuasive message
Peripheral Route when people attend to indirect factors to make a decision about a
persuasive message (e.g. speaker’s appearance)
- Reciprocity norm a social norm stating that we should try to repay in kind what another
person has given us ( I give you a gift, so you give me something in return)
- Consistency people will go to extremes to try to appear consistent in their behaviour
- Social proof we follow the lead of similar others and accept “personal stories” as proof of a
product’s promises
- Other peoples “stories” is a very effective means of persuasion
- The experiences of others are used as pieces of information for decision making
- Study on a cold winter newy York morning, a man stops on a busy stop side walk and gazed
skyward for 60 sec at nothing in particular
- IV varied # of skyward lookers
- Results - As you get more people, more other people are going to follow suit the initial people
- Liking if you like someone, you are more likely to do what they want you to do (e.g. Michael
Jordan like Nike so we like Nike and buy Nike shoes)
- Tupperware parties close friends gather for a party, party is organized by Tupperware and
friends sell to friends
- Authority and credibility we are much more liklet to be persuaded if we perceive the sourse
of the persuasive message to be credible or respectable (e.g. celebrities, actors dressed in lab
coats)
- Study whether they can get people to jade-walk
- Condition A. a guy in a suit jade walks
- Condition B. same guy jade walks but with different attire, this time with jeans and tee
3
- Results 3.5 times as many pedestrians followed him when he wore a suit and tie
- Thus we follow who appear to be more creditable suit = authority
- Scarcity an item or opportunity becomes more desirable as it becomes less available (e.g.
liquidation sales )
Persuasion Strategies
1. Door in the face technique persuader attempts to convince the respondent to comply by
making a large request that the respondent will most likely turn down; much like a metaphorical
slamming of a door in the persuader's face. The respondent IS then more likely to agree to a
second, more reasonable request, compared to the same reasonable request made in isolation
2. Foot in the door technique after agreeing to a small request, people are more likely to agree
to a larger request than they might have been without the first small request Study ask
homeowners moderate request put “drive carefully” sign on lawns, ask some homeowners for
small request first sign safe driving petition two weeks earlier
Result the people who had just been approached about the sign. Only about 15% agreed
about putting the sign on their lawn. But two weeks earlier if those had agreed to sign the
petition about safe driving, 60% agreed to put a sign in their lawn
3. Low Balling Inducing a customer to agree to purchase a product at a low cost, and then
increasing the price at the last minute
- Relies on consistency
- The product never changes only the price of the product
- Study experimenter “ Will you participate in my experiment tomorrow?” – 56% participant
said yes. Then all of sudden the experimenter adds “btw it’s at 7am in the morning” = 95% still
showed up
- Whereas in the other condition experimenters asked partipants “Will you partipate in my
experiment at 7 am tomorrow?” - this time only 24% of potential participants agreed
4. Bait- and-Switch drawing someone in by making a desirable offer, but then changing the deal
or switching the terms at the last minute
- Differs from low-balling the product is something different from the original offer (ie. Switch)
5. That’s not all – padding an offer with an additional offer before the person has responded to
the initial offers
Emotional messages -
1. Fearful messages persuasive messages which evoke fear and arousal
Effectiveness slightly fearful = persusive
Moderate to very fearful = provides a solution can be or cannot be persuasive
2. Sleeper effect a delayed persuasion technique where as initially rejected message is
adopted latter
Source monitoring errors the tendency to forget the source of a memory before we forgot
the memory itself
Episodic memory decays before declarative memory

Document Summary

What are attitudes a like or dislike that influences our behaviour toward someone or something. Valence of an attitude an idea or belief that you hold positivity in which you subscribe something positively or negatively. Valence bipolar dimension good (better) vs bad (worse) You can have similar valences of attitudes but differ in strength (both are independent dimensions ) Explicit attitude attitudes you can state in words , fully aware of your attitudes. Implicit attitude stored as an association in your semantic network = associating between the object and the concepts of good or bad - peace, flowers represent good things while war, famine represent bad things. The common belief - what you believe about something will directly affect and predict your behaviour of that something however, your behaviour toward something can also change your attitude of that something. Cognitive dissonance (festinger) a change in people"s behaviour alters attitudes.