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PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Semantic Network, Dependent And Independent Variables, Quasi

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Scientific methods:
Hypothetic-deductive Method
1. Examine past knowledge/research
2. Form a theory e.g. forming a theory on why we behavior aggressively
3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis meaning transforming abstract
concept into something more visible
4. Test hypothesis
5. Revise theory
Variable types
(a) Dependent variable “DV”
The outcome, the variable you want to be able to predict
(b) Independent variable “IV’
The predictor, the variable that you think will predict the DV, the
independent must be experimentally manipulated in order to imply
Correlational design
a) Key Features: 2 DVs
We consider both variables in a correlational analysis to be “outcomes” to reflect the
lack of causal conclusions that can be drawn. No experimental manipulation, Random
Examples of correlational design: ice-cream sales are strongly correlated with increased number
of drowning. This might not be true because it does depend on a number of factors which
might be related to the increased number of drowning other than ice creams. If 2 things are
correlated this means that they predict each other. E.g. assuming that someone is sick because
they have stuffy nose, which might be right. However, stuffy nose didn’t cause the cold, but
vice versa.
b) Statistical Analysis for correlational design is correlation. If it’s significant,
probability should be less than/equal 5 meaning they predict each other
c) Proper Interpretation: Covariance and prediction but no causality
Correlational design always support causal hypothesis e.g. cold always cause stuffy nose.
Quasi experimental designs: key features;
1. Defined IV (predictor usually categorical) and DV (outcome)
2. No manipulation because the IV is a known/natural group e.g. sex, ethnicity,
3. Comparison/control group
4. Stratified random sampling meaning you need enough info to get equal number
of people into each known groups. E.g. recruiting large of number of people from
a minority group to even out the differences in comparison with the majority

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groups. E.g. theory of mind research using 2 age groups: 3& 5 years old. Theory
of mind is the ability to recognize that other people have distinct minds from us.
This doesn’t fully develop until the ages between 3 and 5. We can’t say age
caused the difference when discussing theory of mind using quasi experiment
because we can only understand the difference. However, we have to observe
the cognitive and physiology areas responsible for such differences. Children
can’t lie until they develop theory of mind.
5. Statistical analysis for quasi is a t-test. Proper interpretation is covariance and
prediction, but discuss the difference, no causality.
Experimental designs involve manipulating an IV, random sampling/ assignment to
condition, comparison/control group. People taking ecstasy are worse at detecting
anger in people’s face and also, don’t feel empathy/ warm feeling with other aka
intimacy. Mdma doesn’t increase systematic empathy but can decrease accuracy
detecting a particular emotion from distancing ourselves from others.
a) Statistical analysis includes t-test, ANOVA and Bayesian methods.
b) Proper interpretation means that IV causes DV
THE SELF: an individual conscious of one’s identity aka who you are; feeling, thoughts,
observations. This can be known by how we interact with others, how respond to situations,
hearing our thoughts.
SELF AWARENESS: awareness of self as an entity that is distinct from others and the
environment evolutionary. Human possess the most complex self-awareness. This means been
different from others/world, tested with the mark test aka rouge test. According to the test,
someone with self-awareness is able to notice a mark on their face. Also, most humans pass the
test at age 1 and half.
LEVELS OF SELF: a) minimal self: conscious experience of self as distinct from the environment.
This occurs through double stimulation meaning than you’re able to recognize everything that is
you (body parts) e.g. touching your elbow and able to feel that it’s part of you. B) Objectified
self: cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own/other’s attention. The aspect of
being a social object, thinking about both people/self. C) Symbolic self aka narrative self: the
ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through languages. Only human
can do this because human understand human language.
INHERENTLY SOCIAL: “My thought of self is … filled up with my thought of others … and my
thoughts of others … *are+ mainly filled up with myself.” James Mark Baldwin.
THE SELF CONCEPT: the idea of who you are, everything you know about yourself, including
qualities, identities, roles etc.
SELF-SCHEMA: cognitive representation of self-concept. The concepts/words in your semantic
network that is associated with your sense of self. Guides processing of self-related
information. This is ability to recognize things in your environment that are related to yourself.
Measuring of self-concept is done through the use of the twenty statement test e.g. I am……
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