•Culture can be one large topic/situation
oAn everchanging constructive stimulus which shape the way individuals perceive and
contribute to the world.
Influenced by members of the culture
Influences members of the culture (duality)
What is Culture?
•Nationality country you were born in
•Ethnicity Your cultural heritage
•Identification shared identity of group members
•Meaning System Symbols, language, experiences; metaphysical (beliefs about the world,
universe and existence)
•2 primary methodological orientations to studying culture
oCulture Comparative: universalist approach to cultural psychology that assumes basic
psychological processes are fundamental to all humans
Most common approach in cultural psychology
Think between-culture variation is comparable to within-culture variation
oCross-cultural: relativist approach to cultural psychology that assumes that human
behaviour is essentially cultural
Psychological processes are defined by the cultural context in which they occur
Focus on within-culture variation usually only discuss between-culture
oIdentify a construct (individualism) that might vary by culture
oTest the construct in more than one culture
oChoose a culture
oStudy and identify psychological processes of people in that culture (heuristics,
oEmphasizes personal achievement, even at the expense of others
oGreater emphasize on competition
oCanada, Western Europe, U.S.
oIf they see a picture of the fish they would say the fish is faster, leader, etc.
oEmphasize social roles and collective responsibilities, even at the expense of the
oGreater emphasize on cooperation