Chapter 9 notes- Attraction
-One of the simplest determinants of interpersonal attraction is proximity.
-The people who, by change, you see and interact with most often are
most likely to become your friends and lovers
- The finding that the more we see and interact with people, the
more likely they are to become our friends
- Refer to the apartment/resident example
-the propinquity effect works because of familiarity, or also known as:
Mere Exposure Effect
- The finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the
more we like it.
- We see certain people a lot, and the more familiar they become,
the more friendship blooms.
- Of course if you feel negatively toward the person in question,
then, not surprisingly, the more exposure you have to him or her,
the greater your dislike.
-propinquity may soon no longer be a prerequisite for the formation of
relationships. This is due to the existence of online communication via
messenger or dating website or via phone.
- we don’t become good friends with everyone who is near us in
- The “fuel” is similarity- the match between our interests,
background, attitudes, and values of those of the other person.
- We are more attracted to people who are like us. (or are we
attracted to those who are our opposites? This is known as
- Similarity in terms of values and attitudes is an important
predictor of attraction in both friendships and romantic
- Not very pleasant to interact with someone who disagrees with us
on everything, but opposite when both the people feel the same
way on important issues, thus we find it more enjoyable to spend
time with that person.
- When you like someone and that person also likes you in return.
- One of the prime determinants of interpersonal attraction.
- It can come about because of a self-fulfilling prophecy (led some
of the participants to believe that the person they are going to
interact with likes you while others were told that your partner
doesn’t like you. Thus you go about your conversation with this
person knowing whether they like you or not. Conversations went
well if told that the person liked you, and conversation didn’t go
well if told that the person didn’t like you).
- People with negative self-concepts tend to be skeptical about
others actually liking them and therefore do not necessarily
- Physical attraction is also a strong predictor of liking another
- Men attractiveness on women are faces with large eyes, small
nose, small chin, prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks, high
eyebrows, large pupils and big smile
- Women attractiveness on men are faces with large eyes,
prominent cheekbones, a large chin and a big smile.
- Large eyes signify the “baby face” feature of newborns.
- This is thought to be attractive because they elicit feelings of
warmth and nurturance in perceivers
Langlois and Roggman hypothesized that attractive daces for both sexes
are those whose features are the arithmetic mean, or average and no the
! We tend to like the composite faces more than the individual
faces. This is so because the composite average faces has lost some of
the atypical or unfamiliar variation that makes up individual faces
-The crucial variable that explains interpersonal attraction may actually be
! Turns out that faces that almost or somewhat resembled their
own was seen as the most attractive.
-We assume that physical attractiveness is highly correlated with other
! thus beauty constitutes a powerful stereotype ! “what is beautiful
is good” stereotype.
! The beautiful are thought to be more sociable, extroverted, and
popular than the less attractive
Misattribution of Arousal
- The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about
what is causing them to feel the way they do.
- Example of the sturdy bridge and scary bridge and whether the
men called up the attractive experimenter or not when they were
on the sturdy or scary bridge.
- An approach derived from evolutionary biology that states that
men and women are attracted to different characteristics in each
other-men are attracted by women’s appearance women are
attracted by men’s resources-because this maximizes their
Social Exchange Theory
- theory that how people feel about a relationship depends on their
perception of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind
of relationship they deserve, and their chances of having a better
relationship with someone else.
- Has rewards, costs, outcomes, comparison level, and
comparison level for alternatives
- the theory that people are happiest with relationships in which the
rewards and costs that a person experiences, and the
contributions that he or she makes to the relationship are roughly
equal to the rewards, costs and contributions of the other person.
- exchange relationships and communal relationships
Commitment calibration hypothesis
- the idea that the outcome of adversity/difficulty on a relationship
depends on the level of commitment: if the level of adversity is lower than
commitment, the relationship is not challenged, but if adversity is higher
than commitment, the relationship ends. If adversity equals commitment,
the relationship will be strengthened.
- idealizations of your partner.