- The perception that those in the out-group are more similar
(homogeneous) to each other than they really are, as well as more
similar than the members of the in-group are to each other.
We can minimize such effects by changing the people’s perceptions of “us” and
1) One approach is to change the people’s perceptions of “us” and “them”
by either promoting a common identity or by emphasizing the super
ordinate groups to which in-group and out-group members belong.
Prejudice and discrimination can be reduced when people’s focus
shifts from membership in their specific in-group to a broader group
that includes members of the out-group.
2) Provide with an alternative route to self-esteem, so they won’t have to
step on other to be on top. There is evidence that prejudice is
diminished when groups share a common identity or goal.
-our attitudes toward members of another group are determined not only be our
stereotype of that group but also by our perception of that group’s stereotype of
Devine’s theory of a Two-Step Model of Cognitive Processing:
1) The automatic processing- bring up information automatically-in this case,
stereotypes. It occurs whenever an appropriate stimulus is encountered,
either a member of a stereotypical group or contact with a stereotypical
statement, causing the stereotypes for that group to be accessed from
memory. Automatic processing occurs without your awareness. You
don’t purposely think of these thoughts, they just happen or is triggered by
the presence of the stimulus.
2) The controlled (or conscious) processing- can refute or ignore the
stereotypes. They tend to suppress or override stereotypes. It occurs with
your awareness as when you choose to disregard or ignore the
stereotyped information that has been brought to mind. Those of us who
want to be non-prejudiced are less likely to activate negative stereotypes
automatically when we encounter stereotype-relevant cues.
-Another factor that determines whether we automatically activate stereotypes is
whether we will get a self-esteem boost by doing so. Example- Michael received
a bad mark on his term paper by his professor who was Black. Michael’s
stereotype of black people is they are not very competent. Hence this would
allow him to dismiss the criticism of his work as stemming from an incompetent
source (the black professor) with the result that he will not feel as bad about his
negative evaluation. So we pick and choose when to activate our stereotype and
which stereotypes to activate or inhibit.