PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Counterfactual Thinking, Extraversion And Introversion, Caveman

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PSYB10 LECTURE 2 – SEPTEMBER 21 2015
What is the Self?
William James – The Social Self
oThere are different selves with different characteristics that exist differently
The Individual self – beliefs about our personal traits, abilities,
preferences, tastes and talents and so on
Relational self – about ourselves in specific relationships
Who you are as a daughter vs a girlfriend
Collective self – our beliefs about our identities as members of social
groups in which we belong
Situationalism - aspects of the self may change depending on the situation
oDistinctiveness
We highlight the more unique thing about us in certain instances?
If you’re in a fourth year class and you’re a second year, your age
defines you – makes you unique
oSocial context
Sense of self changes depending one who you’re interacting with
Talking to a cop vs talking to your friend
Independent view of self
oSelf as a distinct, autonomous entity,
More prominent in North America and Western European
Men usually elude to this
More into their internal responses
Interdependent view of self
oStresses connection to people, defined by our social roles and shared traits
East/south Asian, Mediterranean, Latin American and African
Female – more sensitive to external social hues
Differences in gender thoughts may be due to:
oSocialization - Stereotypes, parental feedback and education treatment
You’re a girl so you aren’t able to wear boys clothes
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PSYB10 LECTURE 2 – SEPTEMBER 21 2015
Girls get feedback about respecting others and boys can do whatever the
fuck they want
oEvolution may contribute to gender differences
Independent views may advantage males in acts like physical competition
and hunting
Interdependent views are important in maintaining social bonds and care
giving
Self-esteem
opositive or negative overall evaluation that each person has of himself or herself
ocontingencies of self-worth (where it comes from)
self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures in domains that are
important to us
Whatever we choose to focus on, determines our self-esteem.
oIf you’re focused on school, and you’re doing badly, your
self-esteem will go down. If you’re bless u stay bless
oSociometer hypothesis – How am I Doing?
More specific than general contingencies of self-worth
Self-esteem = internal, subjective index or marker of the extent to which a
person is included or looked on favorably by others
One experiment to test this:
oPeople were told this was an experiment about thoughts of
others
Were supposed to write about themselves, then
were given other responses and asked who they
wanted to work with
They were told that no one wanted to work with
them 
Self-esteem declined quite a bit as a result
oThe reason it works the way it does is because its adaptive
thing
oWhen we were cavemen, no one could survive on their
own
oCulture
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PSYB10 LECTURE 2 – SEPTEMBER 21 2015
Members of individualistic cultures tend to report higher levels of self-
esteem than members of collectivistic cultures
Feeling good about self is more valued in western cultures
Some Asian languages have no word for self esteem
Members of collectivistic tend to place value on self-improvement
Less emphasis on feeling good about the self and more on feeling
good about ones contribution to collective goals
oMore for than team than for themselves
Contact with other cultures can influence views of the self
East Asians that have contact with western culture, they have
higher self esteem
oDangers of High Self Esteem
More sensitives to treats, insults and challenges
If its unwarranted (under attack) – make the person feel insecure
oReact more aggressively when their self-esteem is
threatened
Can find them by looking if they really believe that they’re the
GOAT
Inflated self-esteem can be counterproductive
Psychopaths, murderers, rapists, gang members have very high
self esteem
High self-esteem allows individuals to be satisfied with the self
despite poor life outcomes
oYou need to feel bad about raPING SOME GIRL
BECAUSE THAT’S NOT OK
Self enhancement
oBetter than average effect
Most westerners tend to have a positive view of the self
Tend to rate the self as better than most at some traits
oPositive illusions and mental health
Most assume that proper mental health is marked by realistic views of the
world
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Document Summary

Psyb10 lecture 2 september 21 2015: william james the social self. What is the self: there are different selves with different characteristics that exist differently. The individual self beliefs about our personal traits, abilities, preferences, tastes and talents and so on. Relational self about ourselves in specific relationships: who you are as a daughter vs a girlfriend. Collective self our beliefs about our identities as members of social groups in which we belong: situationalism - aspects of the self may change depending on the situation, distinctiveness. If you"re in a fourth year class and you"re a second year, your age defines you makes you unique: social context. Sense of self changes depending one who you"re interacting with: talking to a cop vs talking to your friend. Independent view of self: self as a distinct, autonomous entity, More prominent in north america and western european. Men usually elude to this: more into their internal responses.

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