Social Psychology Lecture 10.docx

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13 Apr 2012
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Social Psychology Lecture 10
-Aggression: intentional behave thats aimed at causing either physical pain or
psychological pain
>divide it into the type of pain the person is inflicting and the goal of the pain
-types of pain: physical pain, verbal or relational aggression
-what is the goal? its intentional so there is a goal
>hostile aggression: end goal is inflicting the pain
>instrumental aggression: still inflicts pain but difference is, the pain itself is not
the main goal. its the means to the end (i.e person started spreading rumours, goal
was to spreade the rumour but along the way, you get hurt)
-why do we hurt people? typical answers: genetic, chemical influence, frustration-
aggression theory, social learning theory (not one will explain everything, all
together explain)
-Genetic predisposition: some people argue genetic is evolutionarily adapted. the
earliest evidence that supports this are things such as animals can be bred to be
more aggressive. twin studies show high degree of heritability
>stimulate the amygdala and people act more aggressively. depends on context.
both anger and fear are related to amygdala. amygdala doesnt always lead to
aggression, can lead to fear or withdrawl. relative social status of the animal seems
to matter
>pre frontal cortex also is involved. self control and down regulation of
>seratonin: seems to inhibit aggressive responses. down regulates your
aggression
-alcohol is a GABA inhibitor, polarizes your behav. whatever your natural tendency
is, it will come out more if you're intoxicated.
-frustration-aggression hypothesis: people argue that aggression stems from
frustration. frustration is an emotional response from being blocked from your goal
>you see more aggression the closer you are to achieving your goal
>if you cant retaliate against the person who frustrated you, you show even
greater aggression to people who aren't even related to the situation.
-environmental factors: pain and heat evoke aggression
-neo-assosiationism: idea is that we associate aggression and anger. we have these
two concepts closely related
>argue that aversive events cause anger and as a result, concepts we associate
with anger become more aggressive in your mind. once anger related concepts are
accessible in working memory, if you then have opportunity to act aggressive, you'll
act more aggressive
-gun study: two people interact, one is a confederate. work together on a problem
solving tasks, supposed to give each other real shocks as part of the tasks.
manipulated anger by either making it more or less aversive confederate. low anger:
shocked once. high anger: shocked 7 times by confederate. they you have the
opportunity to shock the confederate. next to the shock machine there could be 3
conditions. either no object, gun (experimental condition), or badminton racket
(control)
>results: if you had been shocked a lot by confederate, you shock a lot back. both
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