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Social Psychology: Lecture 9
-in group: social group to which you belong (your sex, ethnicity, UofT community,
clubs you belong too)
-out group: any social group to which you do not belong (york uni student, perceive
them to be similar to each other)
-intergroup processes: situations, cognitions beliefs and feelings that arise when
people from diff group interact with or think about each other
-social identity theory: why do we even form these groups in our mind, why do they
effect what we do?
>diffuse but interrelated set of social psychological theory about when and why
people behave as if they are in a group
>concept that a group is only your group to the extent that you identify with it
(associate it with ourselves)
>we all have a need for + self regard (feel good about our selves). we have a
personal identity that gives us a sense of + self regard (through your own
achievements ). we also achieve this through the groups we belong to
-4 components of social identity theory
>Categorization: in absence of this, there is no group identity. we naturally
organize people into social groups. we have a tendency to want to organize our
>cognitive miser: a short cut (heuristic). we tend to categorize people based
on shared features.
>minimal group: highly context specific. minimal group paradigm (create in
groups and out groups from minimal set of shared features
>Identification: it increases your self esteem, all of the effects are dependent on
how much you identify with your in group.
>Comparison: in group is only an in group if there’s an out group to compare with.
in group favoritism (tendency for us to see our in group as good, we think its better)
out group derogation (belief that the out group is bad across a bunch of
characteristic. its how we maintain our self worth
>Psychological Distinctiveness: desire to see our group as diff from others.
-realistic conflict theory: argues that the reason we have group is bc the world is
filled with limited resources. by forming groups
-group based biased: has affect, behaviour and cognition aspects
-Stereotypes: the cognitive component. a schema we have about members of other
groups, set of expectations. beliefs about diff characteristics
-prejudice: affective component. your attitudes towards that person is only based on
their group. judge someone before you know them on basis of group membership
-discrimination: behaviour component. unjustified negative/harmful action towards
member of group simply bc they're in a group.
-stereotyping: usually stereotypes are broad generalizations. typically trait based
but can also depend on context
>egalitarian ideologies: egalitarians dont stereotype most of the time (they know
about the, but don't apply them to new people). people who are prejudice dont even
try to control it