PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Cognitive Miser, Ingroups And Outgroups, Laziness

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12 Nov 2012
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Social lec 19
Ingroup : a social group to which you belong. Whatever ingroup you identify with the most
would be the aspect you are thinking about yourself at the moment.
Outgroup: a group to which you don’t belong. Ex: a York student. It depends on your
perspective of what is your ingroup then you figure out your outgroup.
Intergroup processes: situations, cognitions, beliefs and feelings that arise when people from
different groups interact with or think about each other.
Social identity theory: a diffused interrelated set of social psychological theories about when
and why individuals identify with and behave as a part of social groups.
-assumptions: we wanna think we are good people. Have a positive self regard. We can try and
be good people. Done thorugh our own self achievements. And done through identification
with the achievements of the social group we belong too. when your group does good, makes
you think you are good cause you are part of the group.
4 main concepts of social identity theory:
1. Categoriazation: if we don’t categorize there are no groups for intergroup processes.
People naturally group people into groups. Through this categorization we can create
ingroup outgroup distinction.
Why do we categorize? Laziness, easier to get know who you are like. (old way)
cognitive miser (new way) its we have limited cognitive resources that we must
conserve. Categorize people on basic shared features or when you can trivially create
minimal groups. Cognitive miser: intelligent way of going about. We use our cognitive
resources. we’ll move faster through the world by saying this person is one of them,
then move to the next person. It’s a form of heuristic, but trade off speed for accuracy
lazy: didn’t care, easier.
Minimal groups: in groups and out groups formed on the trivial, highly context specific
features. Their paradigm is used a lot. It creates in groups and outgroups from very
minimal conditions. By simply telling someone about something, you see an array of
behaviors.
Study: participants were asked to guess the number of dots on a page. Assigned
overestimation and underestimaters.
Paradigms show that the impact of group categorization is profound and can have
consequences either as you seen ingroups or outgroups.
2. Identification: bolster, suppoer your self esteem. It is the process of associtating the self
with certain in groups. The more you identify with a group, the more you will associate
with yourself the characteristics from that group. Important because effects of social
identity theory are dependent on identification with the group.
3. Comparison: we compare ingroups with outgroups, seeing a favorable bias toward the
group to which we belong. Creates ingroup favoritism which is the beleief that the
group is good across a variety of characteristics and more desirable deserving of good
things. Ex: people in general tend to only remember in general only good than bad
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Document Summary

Ingroup : a social group to which you belong. Whatever ingroup you identify with the most would be the aspect you are thinking about yourself at the moment. Outgroup: a group to which you don"t belong. It depends on your perspective of what is your ingroup then you figure out your outgroup. Intergroup processes: situations, cognitions, beliefs and feelings that arise when people from different groups interact with or think about each other. Social identity theory: a diffused interrelated set of social psychological theories about when and why individuals identify with and behave as a part of social groups. Assumptions: we wanna think we are good people. And done through identification with the achievements of the social group we belong too. when your group does good, makes you think you are good cause you are part of the group. 4 main concepts of social identity theory: categoriazation: if we don"t categorize there are no groups for intergroup processes.

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