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PSYB10H3 Lecture Notes - Pluralistic Ignorance, Prosocial Behavior, Reciprocal Altruism

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Kevin Page

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Social lec 22
Cooperative dilemmas : situations where the most beneficial action for an individual will be
harmful for the collective group.
-escalation of conflict: interpersonal conflict feeds itself and escalates if one side does not
begin concession. Usually conflict builds back on itself when you keep matching aggressive
behavior. Somebody has to say im not going to escalate this anymore.
-tragedy of the commons: a co-operative dilemma whereby you have a common set of goods
that will replenish itself if it is used in moderation but disappear if overused
Why do we take more than our share?
When we approach the commons what is my desired share?(anchor) then you recognize that
everyone needs from the good so u adjust accordingly (adjustment)but most of the time you do
not adjust down sufficiently. Size of commons is not readily estimable. Its hard to estimate how
much goods you have relative to the groups.
We take our fair share when its easy to divide the common goods among the group. Ex: pizza,
you know how many slices and people won’t take more than their fair share.
-prisoners dilemma: a situation where 2 people must make a collectively dependent decision
without knowing the other person’s decision.
Study: the game theory- 2 people have been caught for stealing something. Brought into
separate interrogating rooms and being interrogated. They don’t have full evidence. If one
confesses gets parole doesn’t confess gets life. Your not sure what the other person is gonna
do, what do you do.
Prosocial behavior: action performed with the goal of benefiting another person.
Altruism: helping done purely out of a desire to help another person.
-does not benefit the self
-may even involve a cost to self. Ex: stay up late to help your roommate study for exam you
loose sleep but roommate aces it.
When do we help: the situation can influence when we help another person(altruism) or not
(bystander apathy).
-mood: mood affects helping. Both good mood and bad moods increase helping relative to
neutral mood.
Positive mood: found money on ground, then see someone drop papers. They are more likely
to help people pick up papers when they just found money. More likely to make positive
attributions for peoples behave when we’re in good mood. Good moods tend to increase self
Negative mood: when we feel bad we’re more likely to help. When your bummed out and you
help someone else, it can make you feel better about yourself help your bummed mood.
-spare time: we help less when we feel rushed for time.
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