PSYB21_March 8.docx

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31 Mar 2012
PSYB21 March 8, 2012
Field placement due: April 5th
Things you notice
Cognitive 3 examples, physical 3 examples, social/emotional 2 examples
Relate to theories
Briefly explain what the theory is then say how it is related to what that child
did and how both correlates
Ex. Pshysical:
o Effects of early physical maturity
o Fine + gross motor skills
Ex. Vygotsky’s theory
DO NOT DO CHAPTER 4 (not included)
LEARNING TO COMMUNICATE- Chapter 5 continued
Learning Language
- requires joint attention or intersubjectivity the sharing of a common focus
o shared visual attention
o ex. Bottle- Attention with the object that is being labeled
o ex. Airplane- “look there’s an airplane”; and everyone looks up
- Adults often help their children learn using infant-directed
o Adults and child need to share attention
First Words
- Around a year of age, most children begin to say single words
- First words typically refer to objects around the child like dada, ball, or
o Piaget says it makes sense because sensory motor stage relates to
concreate stage with things around that are important in their world
- Babies are often able to convey a sentence worth of meaning through single
words called holophrases
o Ex. If they want milk they say only “milk”
- Two-word utterances appear around 18 months
- Once past the two-word stage, much variability across children
- Will use telegraphic speech- short, simple sentences with mostly content
o Ex. Like taking out “the”; “lisa ball”
- Around 3, begin expanding the structure of language adding things like ed,
-ing, and the possessive
- Also become better functionally better understood by others and […]
Individual differences in early language development
- Why is it important to understand individual differences?
- “Late talkers” typically increase their rate to catch up with typically
developing peers
o they tend to catch up sooner of later (in couple years)
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- this means that the rate of early language development is not a good
predictor of the rate of later language skills
Language development after age 5
- Major task is developing communicative competence- learning to use
language in an appropriate manner
*(Major challenges in complexities occur at age 5 and under)
Language in adolescence
- adolescents know about 80 000 words by the time they graduate from high
- at about 11 or 12, understand that words have both literal and metaphoric
o ex. Piaget’s theory: gap of concrete to formal operations
- learn to adapt language to different situations
o when to be formal, casual, when is appropriate to use slang, jokes, etc
younger kids don’t really understand when to use these in different
Learning two languages at the same time
- children are equipped to learn multiple languages simultaneously
(“simultaneous bilinguals”) if the environment is sufficiently rich
- have to use both languages regularly to remain truly bilingual
- children who speak two languages show some intellectual advantages
o ex. Children spoken and sign language show same patterns as learning
two spoken language
Aquiring a second language
- not acquiring two languages at the same time- a 2nd language
o a child learning a new language at a different time period
- not completely clear if there’s a “critical period”, but probably not
- much easier to learn a second language if surrounded by native speakers in a
natural environment… not typically the way it is in school!
o Like going to Italy to learn Italian (the environment)
o Ex. French schools: watch movies, play songs in French, encourage to
speak French even with peers, posters are in french
- Learning a second language will not make someone “lose” their first language
Fostering language development
1. adults assume that children will learn language
a. speak to children in that language pretending that they know it
already, etc
2. adults and children are partners in creating meaning and cooperate in
constructing language
a. gestures; back to “look at the airplan”
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