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Lecture 5

Week 5


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Lecture
5

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Week 5:
Contemporary Trait Taxonomies
Overview of Todayโ€™s Lecture
-Introduction to the Big Five Taxonomy
-Emotional & Interpersonal Domains
-Core Feature of Extraversion
The Five-Factor Model
-Common Measures:
oNEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992)
๎€Assess not only the big 5 domains but also 6 facets or smaller traits
within the big 5
๎€Takes long to complete (45mins to an hour)
oThe โ€œBig Fiveโ€ Inventory (John et al., 1991)
๎€Results are known to be reliable and valid
๎€Takes about 10mins to complete
๎€One of the more wildly used instruments
oRecently, Gosling et al. (2003) demonstrated that the five-factor model could
be reliably assessed with as few as TEN items.
Neuroticism
-Is a broad dimension of individual differences ready to experience distress and other
negative affects
-People who are high on the trait of neuroticism more readily experience a wide range
of emotional and somatic complaints
oThey report feeling worrisome and anxious, feel vulnerable and self-conscious
and quick to anger
-Those that are most neurotic are the least able to regulate negative moods like
sadness, worry and anger
-At the other end of this continuum is emotional stability; they are by contrast the
most able to regulate their moods
-NEO-PI-R Facets:
oAnxiety, Angry Hostility, Depression, Self-Consciousness, Impulsiveness,
Vulnerability
-Correlates of Neuroticism:
oRelationship Difficulties
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๎€Those individuals who are highest in neuroticism experience the
lowest levels of relationship satisfaction, marital satisfaction and
higher rates of divorce
๎€The burdens of close relationships are much harder for very neurotic
people to bear
๎€They are more anxiously attached and less securely attached; they
bring all kinds of garbage into their personal relationships
๎€All of the additional stress of things like abandonment, neglected,
rejected, etc put additional burden on their partners
๎€Neuroticism is a burden on relationship success
oNegative Affect (hallmark of neuroticism)
๎€Refers to all of the unpleasant emotional states (depression, anxiety,
anger, irritability)
-The trait of neuroticism was the best predictor of how overall negative ones mood
was over a period of time; highly neurotic people tend to report higher levels of
negative affect
-Neuroticism is not related to the frequency of positive affect
-Over a very short period of time; positive moods and negative moods are highly
inversely (negatively)related but over long periods of time that strong negative
relationship lessens such that over a significant period of time your frequency of
positive and negative moods are uncorrelated with each other
- Neuroticism uniquely predicts negative emotions and to a much lesser extent
positive emotions
Extraversion
-Refers to a broad dimension of individual differences related to positive social
engagement
-Highly extraverted people are those that engage with the other world; embrace social
life confidently; take initiative; like attention
-They confidently and competently confront the social world
-At the other end of this dimension is introversion which refers to the lack of these
characteristics; people who tend to be shy and socially inhibited
-NEO-PI-R Facets:
oWarmth, Gregariousness, Assertiveness, Activity, Excitement Seeking,
Positive Emotions
-Correlates of Extraversion:
oSocial Dominance
oPositive Affect
๎€Extraversion is seems to be a unique predictor of positive affect
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๎€Those individuals highest on extraversion would be those who
reported the most frequent positive moods
โ€ขReport feeling joyful, confident, proud, excited, etc.
๎€Extraverts are not more or less likely to report negative moods
๎€In terms of social consequences, the defining correlate of extraversion
is status attainment
๎€They are remarkable social climbers in inform settings
๎€Extraversion is the most consistent predictor of social status
attainment
Agreeableness
-Refers to a broad dimension of individual differences relating to ones propencities
towars cooperation and communal relations
-To what extent do you put emphasis on establishing and maintaining smooth warm
cooperative relations with other
-Highly agreeable people tend to be able to perspective take, able to empathize,
patient, forgiving, etc.
-NEO-PI-R Facets:
oTrust, Straightforwardness, Altruism, Compliance, Modesty, Tender-
Mindedness
-Correlates of Agreeableness:
oGratitude & Forgiveness
๎€The more agreeable one is the more likely they are to look at their life
and see themselves as being the recipient of undeserved gifts
๎€So they are much more willing to express the feeling of gratitude; their
feelings of gratitude reach out much farther than less agreeable people
โ€ขThey thank those in their immediate surroundings but it
reaches farther
๎€They are more likely to forgive transgression and trespasses in their
close relationships
oVolunteerism
๎€Highly agreeable people are more likely to volunteer and take on civic
responsibilities and contribute to the community
๎€People at the low end of this dimension are more likely to engage in
antisocial and criminal behaviour
Conscientiousness
-Refers to the readiness for hard work
-A dimension of a individual differences that refer to a broad range of functioning
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