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Week 7

Course Code
Marc A Fournier

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Week 7 Lecture:
Goals & Strivings
Overview of Week 7 Lecture
The Legacy of David C. McClelland
The Needs for Power & Intimacy
Trait x Motive Interactions
Introduction to Social Motivation
McClellands Definition of a Motive/Need:
A recurrent preference or readiness for a particular quality of experience,
which energizes, directs, and selects behavior in certain situations
Motives for McClelland are kinds of like lens, a way of filtering ones
experience into the kinds of qualities that are most meaningful or relevant to
So all of us see the world differently, in one of the lens through which
we see the world that distinguishes your world from my world are the
motivational preferences that I have that are different from you
So given a certain motivational preparedness, I will see the world in
slightly different ways from people with different motivational
Motive Conscious Intention
Some motives are known to us, we have access to
We can look into us and see the goal we have
He felt that there were certain motivations that were only partly
accessible to the consciousness that lie primarily outside the conscious
awareness and that they play a profound role in shaping our cognition,
perception and our behaviour
He believes that much of what motivates us are not motives we are
consciously aware of
Motive Trait
Motives are different from traits
Traits refer to the questions of what
Like what thoughts are does someone typically have, what
feelings are someone prone to having
Motivational constructs reference questions that begin with why
We are making reference or seeking info about the motives
underlying the behaviour
We should not use these constructs interchangeably

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Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
TAT was McClellands strategy to gain access to those implicit motivations
Subjects compose stories in response to a series of ambiguous picture cues
Story content reveals the underlying needs, conflicts, and complexes that subjects
project onto the picture
TAT = projective test
The TAT consists of standardized sequence of cards
They depict pictures and the participant is instructed to write a story in response to
a series of pictures
All participants see the exact same pictures in the exact same order
The picture dont have fixed stories; they are ambiguous; the participants must make
up the story on their own
Whatever story the participant creates from the cards is instrinsic to the them; not
to the cards
The notion here is that when faced with an ambiguous stimulus and when asked to
make meaning of it, what we do is we rely on our own organization of motivation,
concern, hopes and fears and we project them onto the characters
So the characters are presumably acting out the underlying hopes and wishes that
we have either unconsciously or consciously
Therefore, the story we write and the characters we create will reflect our
motivational concerns
Developing a TAT Scoring System
First, determine what themes distinguish the stories written under motive arousal
conditions from those written under neutral testing conditions. Use several motive
arousal conditions as part of this process.
Then, use those themes as part of a scoring system to assess the motivation of
individuals. Assume that those individuals who show more frequent thematic
imagery have a higher baseline level for that specific motive.
A scoring system with rigorous set of instructions that the experimentalist can use
as a guide to the stories people write and code them for their thematic imagery
related to achievement
Mark the presence or absence of various themes
The more themes related to achievement, presumably the more achievement
motivation they have
Criticisms of the TAT
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