Week 8

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5 Jul 2011

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Week 8 Lecture:
Overview of Week 8 Lectures
Part I. Humanism
Part II. Self-Determination
Part III. Goals & Self-Concordance
Overview of Part I
Humanistic Approaches to Psychology
Rogers Fully Functioning Person
Maslows Self-Actualizer
An optimistic view of the person as inherently good
Views the human being as rational, purposeful, and autonomous, capable of
creativity and experiencing deep and profound insights into reality
The 3rd force of psychology, a viable viewpoint on human nature that is distinctive
from both psychoanalysis and behaviorism
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
He understood that to know how to make people better, you need to know how things
go wrong; have to have a theory of where personality comes from and where it
derails in its development
He was convinced that at the heart of things, there was a singular motivation
underlying all human behaviour
The organism has but one basic tendency and strivingto actualize, maintain, and
enhance the experiencing organism. (Rogers, 1951)
He believed that inside each of us there is a true self and there is a part of our
innate trajectory where we will realize that person and are in the process of
becoming that person
How do we know when you are taking the right steps to become the person you are
meant to be?
He speculated that there is a mechanism (intuitive structure) that informs us
as to whether or not we are taking growth promoting steps in our
development the Organismic Valuing Process
The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP)
Humans have a fundamental capacity to perceive the growth-relevant
implications of their experiences and choices
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Its build into the species; everyone has it
The idea that a little voice inside of us that lets us know if we are doing
anything stupid
Ex: when you get back with a partner you always break up with, you have a
voice in the back of your head telling you this was a bad choice
The Fully Functioning Person
The term fully functioning person was the phrase used to characterize someone
who is actualizing their inner potentials and bringing out their true sense of self;
someone who truly listens to their OVP
Openness to Experience
Not the same as the one in the 5th factor
Meant to characterize how the fully functioning person is free of the need to
defensively distort the reality they experience
They are able to listen attentively without anxiety both to the stimuli within
them and from the environment
Not overwhelmed with insecurities and defensive; they can confront the
reality of things
They have the stability to face negative feedbacks
Existential Living
They are free to live in the moment
They arent preoccupied with the past or the anticipated future
Has the ability to trust their inner intuition
They abide by what their OVP is instructing them to do
They know that their instincts lead to growth promoting outcomes so they
trust themselves and go with their gut
On Becoming a Person
Positive Regard critical feature to the path of fully functioning
All of us have an innate need to be loved and accepted (positive regard)
Conditions of Worth
We find that there are conditions attached to the worth we receive; most of us
find that socializing agents (parents, teachers, etc) are not unconditional in
the regard they have for us
They are conditions that need to be met; most of us figure out that some
things will lead to approval and others to disapproval
As we grow up we learn about what things we need to do and what kinds of
people we need to be in order to secure love, affection and attention from
others this has critical implications in our development
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Conditional Positive Regard
When you put positive regard and conditions of worth, you get the idea of
conditional positive regard
The idea that love and approval are earned occasionally by meeting certain
All of us as we grow, we learn the conditions upon with our worth is attached
and the conditions upon which positive regard will be bestowed
Client-Centered Therapy (Rogerian psychotherapy)
If these conditions of worth imply that certain aspects of who we are cannot be
realized we are setting up a circumstance where the self will become fragmented
oHow to fix this? You need to supply the client with psychological distress with
unconditional positive regard they never received
Unconditional Positive Regard
The idea that the counselor must provide unconditional positive regard;
he/she must except and value the client without reservation and without
conditions of worth
The counselor must be fully and unconditionally accepting of all the
components of the self the client is bringing to the therapy session; only once
that the whole self is accepted can the patient be able to put the pieces back
together again
Empathic Understanding
A key way of conveying your unconditional positive regard as a counselor is
by expressing your empathic understanding of the clients internal frame of
In your words, convey to the client that you are capable of seeing the world as
the client sees it and you can validate the perspective they have on their
Reflection (therapeutic technique)
The specific behaviour that a counselor will use to convey their empathic
It is when a counselor accurately expressed the clients attitudes and feelings
The behaviour of reflecting back to the client, his/her own attitudes or feeling
is thought to have a transformative impact on the clients sense of self
In psychotherapy deals primarily with the organization and functioning of the self
In client-centered therapy, the counselor is giving up his/her own identity and sense
of self expect one striving to embody what they client is expressing
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