Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Psychology (8,000)
PSYB30H3 (500)
Lecture 6

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Planation Surface, David Buss, Gender Empowerment Measure

Course Code
Marc A Fournier

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
PSYB30 PersonalityFeb 05/2011
Lecture 06
Gender Segregation
Eleanor Maccoby: we still see gender segregation to this day
Maccoby noted that this gender segregation has a history. Doesn't just show up in adulthood, but
the segregation goes back to childhood
In childhood we see clear preferences for segregated play
boys play with boys, and girls with girls. This is universal.
Gender segregation emerges spontaneously in situations in which children are not under
pressure from parents to engage in cross-sex interaction
This behaviour becomes increasingly expressed over childhood. The ration of same-sex to
cross-sex interaction is 3:1 at age four and 11:1 at age 6
War Games &Tea Parties
Boys in Same-Sex interaction:
Use commands, threats, boasts of authority
refuse to comply with another boy's request/demand
interrupt one another, heckle a speaker, call one another names
Girls in Same-Sex interaction:
Pause to give another girl a chance to speak
express agreement with what someone else has said
acknowledge another's point at the start of a speaking turn
So in this early age, girls and boys seem to be practising and rehearsing the very behaviours by
which men and women are later stereotyped
What does this lead us to hypothesize about the nature of gender differences?
Hypotheses for Social Behaviour
Boys and girls tend to socialize in gender-segregate groups. These socialization experiences in
childhood should profoundly influence adult social behaviour
When we grow up, we'll act similarly in same-sex social situations
Men act Agentically with other men
Women act Communally with other women
However, in cross-sex interactions (men with women and women with me), these gender
differences are no longer apparent because these situations differ in the context from which their
gender stereotyped behaviours were learned
Gender, Situation, & Behaviour
In terms of Agentic behaviour:
study confirms that when men are in the presence of other men, their agentic behaviours
become exceptionally more apparent
When men are with opp. Sex friends or romantic partners, men and women have the same
level of agentic-ness
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

When it comes to Communal behaviour, things are a little more complex:
As expected, women, in the presence of other women, behave very communally
However, when with opposite sex friends, males act much more communal than women
With their relationship partners and male friends, womens communal behaviour takes an
even bigger drop compared to men...women become more quarrelsome
PART III: Social Division of Labour
Origins of Sex and Differences in Social Behaviour
Selectivity and Promiscuity
Evolutionary psychologists make note of how men and women differ in their Parental Investment, in the
involvement they have in the process of procreation
Parental Investment:
MEN --> copulation
Men are able to reproduce simply by copulating. Their investment can end at that point
Women, however, don't get off that easily. The investment they make in procreation goes
well beyond just copulating
WOMEN --> copulation, gestation, lactation
The fact that women have more resources, energy, and time to invest on the reproductive
process has led evolutionary psychologists to speculate that there were, historically,
different constraints on the reproductive success on men and women
Men and women were faced with different problems, historically, when faced with the
question of how to reproduce.
Men and women faced diff pressures when faced with reproduction and because of this
adopted diff mating strategies
Constraints on Reproductive Success:
MEN --> number of fertile women they can inseminate
WOMEN --> quantity and quality of resources they can secure
Because of their greater involvement in the reproductive process have to be able to
secure resources
Hypothesized Consequences for Evolved Sex Differences:
MEN: since men are limited only by the number of partners they can successfully
acquire, men devote a larger proportion of their total mating effort to short-term mating
WOMEN: because they have to secure far more resources to ensure successful
reproduction, they devote a larger proportion of their total mating effort to long-term
As such, women should be more selective of their men whereas men should be more
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version