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Lecture 3

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Eleanor Maccoby, Social Learning Theory, Social Cognitive Theory

Course Code
Marc A Fournier

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PSYB30H3: Personality Psychology
Lecture 3: Gender, Society, & Culture
Part I. Social Learning
Rotter & Social Learning
The Psychological Situation
It’s the person subjective interpretation of the situation rather than an objective
array of stimuli, that determines how the person will behave (i.e. has meaning to
the person)
Prefer the theory that is simpler than complicated
Interact with the psychological situation which are subjectively constructed
Any situation that is perceived to be real is real
Wanted to predict peoples behavior and potential of that behavior in a situation
The potential you have is a function of two variables:
Expectancy (E)
Subjective probability that a given behavior will lead to a give outcome
Ex: if I do this that will happen
Reinforcement Value (RV)
Desirability to that outcome
Behavior Potential (BP) = F (E, RV)
Ex: Jane’s potential for conscientiousness
-What is the probability that Jane will work hard?
E: if I work hard I will likely succeed
RV: it is important to me that I succeed
BP: conscientiousness = high
Ex: John Potential for Conversation
-What is the probability that he will initiate a conversation?
E: if I try to start a convo, then others will find me weird
RV: it is important that others like me
Bandura & Social Learning
-Organize and select behavior for desired outcomes
Emergent Properties
Intentions have causal properties
Determine actions
Triadic Reciprocal Causation
Person (P), Environment (E), Behavior (B)
How we behave is caused by who we are by people and the environment were in
(Bandura says no)
Person affects E AND B as people choose their environment
Constant causal interaction
Fortuitous Determinants in Causal Structures
There is an element of chance in peoples lives
Randomness and opportunity
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How we exploit chance
Fundamental Human Capabilities:
I. The Symbolizing Capability
Humans have an extraordinary capacity to represent events and their relationships
in symbolic form
Rather than solve problems solely through performance, we can instead test
possible solutions symbolically in thought
II. The Vicarious Capability
Humans have a capacity for observational learning that enables them to expand
their knowledge and competencies through modeling the behaviors of others
To learn through other peoples mistakes and not make them again
III. The Forethought Capability
Humans have the capacity of forethought- the ability to bring anticipated
outcomes to bear on current activities. We act on anticipation of reinforcement
that we have either directly experienced or vicariously experienced through
We think of rewards in the future and take out punishment
Not determined by past but by pulling the future
IV. The Self-Regulatory Capability
Successful human development requires the substitution internal regulation and
direction for external sanctions (self-regulation)
Sub-functions of self regulations:
-Judgmental processes
V. The Self-Reflective Capability
The foundation of human agency
A persons expectancy or belief in his or her behavioral competence to confront a
Sources of Self-Efficacy:
-Personal/vicarious experiences of success or failure
-Social support and encouragement
-Emotional experiences indirect indicators
Summary Part 1
Rotter’s social learning theory introduces us to an elegant way to think about
human behavior
Bandura social cognitive theory introduced us to the ides of personal agency
Part II. Gender Socialization
“Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus”
Dominance men competition &focus on self
Nurturance women focus on others &cooperation
Men and women have fundamental psychological differences
None overlapping attributes (qualitative differences)
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