Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (640,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Psychology (9,000)
PSYB30H3 (500)
Lecture 4

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Walter Mischel, Lexical Hypothesis, Factor Analysis


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Lecture
4

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
PSYB30H3: Personality Psychology
Lecture 4: TraitsHistory & Controversy
Marc A. Fournier
Part I. Lexical Hypothesis, Factor Analysis, & Paradigm Crisis
Allport’s Concept of Personality
Original Definition (1937)
- The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems
that determine his [or her] unique adjustments to the environment
- Coherent phenomenon, experience of unity across time, integrated personality
- Within the individual meaning its real and inside of you (not hypothetical or
abstract)
- Determinant implies causation and personality does something and what is
responsible for our action
- Personality is the stylistic way we adjust to adaptation
Revised Definition (1961)
- The dynamic organizations within the individual of those psychophysical systems
that determine his [or her] characteristic behavior and thought
- We not only adjust to the environment we reflect and master it and sometimes we
succeed
Allport’s Concept of Traits
- A trait is a neuropsychic structure having the capacity to render many stimuli
functionally equivalent to initiate and guide equivalent (meaningful consistent)
forms of adaptive and expressive behavior” (1961)
- Traits are real and are rooted in the neuro system
- Traits are individual
Common vs. Individual
- Common (factor), quality present in every person but to different degrees
- Individual trait is used by a single person, it is an organizing principle within a
individual
- Ex: humor people use it in different ways
Cardinal, Central, Secondary
- Cardinal: so pervasive that all aspects of an individual functions can be traced, are
rare and when they do occur people tend to identify with them
- Central: categorize significant areas of an individuals function
- Secondary: categorize specific areas of an individuals function, limited scope
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

The Lexical Hypothesis
- Those individual differences that are most salient and socially relevant in peoples lives
will eventually become encoded into their language; the more important such a
difference, the more likely is it to become expressed as a single word
Allport’s Psycholexical Study
- Sorting through 550,00 entries in Webster’s new international dictionary. Allport
and Odbert found 18,000 terms that possessed the capacity to distinguish the
behavior of one human being from another
- Allport and Odbert listed the 18,000 terms in 4 columns:
- Potential personality traits (4,504)
- Temporary states and activities (4,541)
- Evaluative judgments of personal conduct and reputations (5,226)
- Miscellaneous termsphysical qualities, capacities and talents (3,682)
Factor Analysis: Key Concepts
- Variable: any quality that can assume two or more values
- Correlation: a standardized index of the extent to which two variables are co-
related -1 < r < +1
- Factor analysis: a statistical procedure through which a large number of observed
variables are reduced to a smaller number of underlying dimensions called factors
Factor Analysis: An Illustration
Cattell’s Factor-Analytic Study
- Reduced Allport’s and Obert’s list of 4500 personality trait terms to 171 clusters
- Asked people to rate other on each side of the 171 clusters yielding a matrix of
14535 correlations
- Reduced the 171 clusters to 35 which he used to construct both self report and
peer report rating sales
- Factor analyzed hundreds of rating for these 35 clusters from which he incorrectly
analyzed
Cattell’s Concept of Traits
Surface traits
Source traits
Lewis R. Goldberg
The “Big Five”
- Neuroticism
- Extraversion
- Agreeableness
- Conscientiousness
- Openness/Intellect
Part II. Situationists, Aggregationists, & Interactionists
Walter Mischel (Personality and Assessment 1968)
- Helped launch the person situation debate that nearly decimated the field of personality
psychology, his cognitive affective processing system theory of personality has helped to
put the debate to rest
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version