PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Impression Management, Hazel Rose Markus, Dissociative Identity Disorder

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22 Feb 2013
PSYB30 Lecture 5 Purple Text Prof’s Speech
The Self
William James: Two Perspectives on the Self
The self is composed of our thoughts and beliefs about ourselves, or what James called the “known” or
The self is also the active processor of information, the “knower,” or “I.”
- Duality of the perception of the self
o The “known” or the “me” = thoughts and beliefs about ourselves; feedback on what
we’re doing
o The “knower” or the “I” = active processor of information; reflects on processes
In modern terms, we refer to the known aspect is the self concept, and the knower aspect as self-
- “me” = self-concept
- “I” = self-awareness
These two aspects of the self combine to create a coherent sense of identity:
- Think of the self as a book the “me” is the content of the book collected over time, the “I
is the reader of the book
Charles Horton Cooley: The Looking Glass Self
Self can’t be understood in isolation--must be studied in interaction with others
o Who you are is formed by the interactions you have with others
Self is not an inherent property of human nature, but a socially-constructed entity
o We have a self because the concept of self was socially constructed by society as a
Sense of self is built upon seeing ourselves through the eyes of others
o The looking glass self is the self that you think other people see
Table 5.1 (in textbook)
0-1 year: develop physical self-awareness
- recognize that there are boundaries to the self
- recognize the distinction between the self and the environment that is not the self
- when infants are born, they cannot make the above distinction
1-2 years: self-recognition a sign that the infant has an understanding of the difference between the self
and other people
- develop theory of mind people have thoughts separate from their own
Adolescence: become aware of what others think of them
Adult: stable sense of self, normally
- incorporate societal expectations into the self
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Rouge Test
- self-recognition test for children
- mark on forehead of child
o <18 months child doesn’t think it is self in the mirror with mark (looks around for the
other person)
o By 18 months child is able to make the connection; they recognize that it is the self
in the mirror
All the beliefs people have about the self that they believe to be true (more concrete)
Network of ideas
Organizes and provides coherence for how we experience the self
Provides sense of continuity
With dissociative personality disorder patients do not have a sense of continuity; they do not
know what is going on in other personalities
Development of Self-Concept
Child’s self-concept is concrete, with observable characteristics
i.e. favourite things, age, etc.
Infants become aware of the self and the nonself, then the self and others, and then they can
reflect on their own activities
Becomes more complex with age.
Less emphasis on material things, more emphasis on psychological states (thoughts and
feelings), opinions of others
In adolescence more emphasis on the thoughts/opinions of others
How does self-concept develop?
How does self-concept develop?
Birth 1 year: develop physical awareness
2-3 years: recognize self in mirror, uses language to demonstrate self-awareness
3-4 years: develop skills and abilities
5-6 years: compare selves to peers; include differences between self and others in self-concept
Private sense of self develops
More concrete self-concept
9-10 years: recognize and understand traits as enduring intrapersonal qualities having continuity
Adolescence become more sensitive to opinions of others; sensitivity to self and others
Become more self-conscious
Use reflective appraisals
Question identity
Hold internalized view of generalized other (what the person understands about the
society’s understanding about people’s roles)
Incorporate abstract concepts into the self i.e. needs, desires, passions
More abstract motivations and personality characteristics
Extreme self-conscientiousness
In general, good self-concept and stable self-esteem (by adulthood)
Adults experience identity influences from personal characteristics and culture
Means Through Which the Self-Concept Develops
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