PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Abraham Maslow, Psychodynamics, Reductionism

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11 Apr 2013
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PSYB30 – Lecture 9 Purple Text – Profs Speech
Regulation and Motivation: Self-Determination Theory
Why Motivation?
- We want to know what drives people, and how people differ in this regard
o What is it that causes people to do the things they do, what it is that causes them
to make certain choices
- Psychodynamic theories are essentially motivational
o Because you are talking about the different forces (sexual, aggressive) and how
they work together and against each other to form aspects of personality
The Humanistic Tradition in Psychology
- Tradition arose as a Reaction to reductionism of behaviourism and pessimism of
psychodynamics
o Psychodynamic view of personality is very pessimistic sees individual as
constantly struggling, and as having to operate under the weight of a superego and
the expectations of society, etc.
o Behaviourist view of personality personality is what you can see the person
doing, doesn’t address unconscious, only observable behaviours; reduces
personality to just the behaviours that you see
- View individual as active system with an inherent propensity for growth and the
resolution of psychological inconsistencies
o Active system don’t look at individual parts, look at how everything works
together, if something is affecting one part, it will affect the whole
o Trait perspective looks at individual traits, not a system
o Inherent propensity if there is some inconsistency between two things that the
person perceives, they are very motivated to resolve that inconsistency
- Optimal functioning allows both increasing complexity and integration
o Organism will acquire more skills, will become more adaptable to different
circumstances they may face, etc., and maintain a certain level of integration
o People becomes more complex, but not more scattered
Key Humanists
- Abraham Maslow
o Hierarchy of needs
- Carl Rogers
o Positive regard (being accepting of a person no matter what they do)
o Everyone has this actualizing tendency and you have to find out what is blocking
them from achieving their goals; something is blocking them from reaching their
potential
Three Fundamental Psychological Needs
- self-determination theory is based on 3 needs (that are said to be universal human needs)
- Relatedness
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- Competence
- Autonomy
Competence
- Sense that a person optimally has that you can produce certain positive outcomes and
avoid negative ones
o If you have a strong feeling of competence, you feel you can make something
happen in a particular domain
- Feeling that you can reliably produce desired outcomes and/or avoid negative ones
- Requires:
o Understanding of the relationship between a behaviour and its consequences
(referred to outcome expectations)
o Feeling capable of successfully engaging in the behaviour (efficacy expectations)
o 2 pieces of the puzzle: feeling like you can do the action, and feeling like you
understand what you’re doing and what the outcome will be
Autonomy
- Feeling that one is action in accord with sense of self and causal agent with respect to
actions
- Feeling that one can act in accord with sense of who one is and that one can affect certain
outcomes
- Sense of choosing, not feeling compelled or controlled
o To feel autonomous, you have to feel that you are choosing that particular
behaviour and not that someone is imposing that particular behaviour onto you
- Not the same as independence can still be autonomous if have assimilated values of
significant others
o Being independent is more like you are doing your own thing; you are not
concerned with how your behaviour is tied in with others
Internally vs. externally imposed control
- Central issue in autonomy is the experience of freedom from pressure, regardless of who
is imposing the pressure
o it doesn’t matter who is imposing the pressure on you, but whether there is
pressure and whether you feel pressured
o You can impose pressure on yourself
o Pressure doesn’t have to come from an external source
o It doesn’t matter if the pressure is internal or external, but how oppressive it is and
how controlled the person feels by it
Internally informational vs. internally controlling regulation
- Behavioural regulation from within is not necessarily adaptive
- Just because you are imposing standards on yourself, it is not necessarily going to be a
good thing for you
Reasons for Exercising
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