PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Gene Expression, Heritability, High High

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
6 - Personality and Genetics
(Relevant) Cell biology basics
Cell nucleus contains DNA
Carries genetic information
Controls growth and development
23 pairs of chromosomes
o Consists of 4 bases - ATCG
One gene = millions of bases arranged in a sequence
Gene expression: genotype vs phenotype
Genotype = specific genetic makeup
o "what you have"
o The sequence of bases in all your DNA
o Made up of all alleles
Allele = gene variants
Phenotype = how genetic makeup is expressed
o "What you see"
Forms of gene expression
- Mendel: peas to determine gene expression
one allele dominates
also referred to as Mendellian inheritance: two alleles one dominant and one recessive
Codominance and incomplete dominance
neither dominant, or one dominant - doesn’t hide effects of other
Codominance: both expressed (both individuals are expressed)
Both white and red leaves
Incomplete dominance: combination expressed (a mixture of the two is expressed but the individual
isn't expresssed)
Pink leaves seen
Many pairs of alleles create expression
Role of Environment
Phenotype = (consists of the following three things)
1. Genotype + environment
2. +gene-environment interaction
3. +gene-environment correlation
Genotype-Environment Interactions
Impact of environment depends on genotype
Example: Religious upbringing reduces influence of genetic factors on disinhibition.
Genotype-Environment Correlation
Differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different environments
o Passive: Parents provide both genes and environment to children.
Child’s verbal ability and the number of books in home
o Reactive / evocative: Parents (or others) respond to children depending on the genotype
Baby’s liking for cuddling and mother’s cuddling behavior
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