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PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Erection, Latency Stage, Anal Retentiveness

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Connie Boudens

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8 - Intrapsychic Foundations psychodynamic view
Why study Freud?
- We all "speak" Freud
- Unconscious mind plays large role but before him no one looked at it
- Still a lot of ongoing research and theorizing that originates from Freud's research
Driving Forces in Personality
- Eros/libido: the life instinct
o Does this by satisfying our need for hunger, thirst and sex
- Thanatos: the death instinct
o Consisted of aggressive forces, thoughts and actions; the desire to return to an inorganic state where they
would have peace
- He proposed that: human existence was a constant struggle between life and death instinct, between individual's
desires and society.
o Between forces that want to preserve the individual's life and forces that wish to end the life
Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche
- Tripartite model of the psyche:
1. Id: original and most primitive part
This is something everyone is born with
Even animals may have this
2. Ego: realistic aspect satisfies demands of id and keeps it in check
The aspect that is in touch with reality and the world around us
To makes sure that the demands of the Id are met
3. Superego: internalization of society's values consists of conscience and ego-ideal
Ego-ideal: the ideal person you feel you should be
Conscience: the rules of right and wrong
- Think of this as a system there is a limited amount of energy that flows between all three
o Different parts of the psyche will dominate depending on the situation etc.
Does the Structural Model hold up to empirical support?
- No evidence about proposed division of parts
- Ideas of conflict and behavioral compromise among forces that remain important
Division of the Mind: Topographic Model
- Conscious: things we are aware of
- Preconscious: things that can be brought to mind if you want, but harder to access
- Unconscious: things you aren't aware of
o Completely inaccessible

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- Id = completely unconscious
- Ego = all three
- Superego = preconscious and conscious
- The id and superego do not interact
Defense Mechanisms the ego defending itself
When id and superego conflict this results in a response that you are not consciously aware of
- Anxiety in ego caused by id-superego conflict
- Unconscious aspect of ego attempts to defend ego from this conflict
- Repression: impulse prevented from reaching consciousness
- Suppression: conscious work taking place that pushes the impulse down
- Sublimation: transforming id impulses to more acceptable ones
- Projection: ascribing your own undesirable impulses to others
- Rationalization: giving a "rational" explanation for the behaviour
- Intellectualization: uncoupling thoughts and feelings about something
- Undoing: attempts to nullify an action or thought
- Reaction formation: converting an unacceptable impulse into its oppsite
An Example of Reaction Formation: Homophobia
By Adams, Henry E.; Wright, Lester W.; Lohr, Bethany A.Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol 105 (3), Aug 1996, 440-
A group of homophobic men and a group of non-homophobic men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli
consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian videotapes, and changes in penile circumference were
monitored. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli.
Theory of Psychosexual Development
- People pass through stages named for body part that is centre of sexual pleasure
- Conflict/trauma results in fixation on this conflict
o Results in some personality characteristics as a result of the fixation
Stages of Psychosexual Development
1. Oral
o Oral receptive character: dependent, too trusting, not competent
o Oral aggressive character: envious, exploitative
2. Anal
o Anal retentive character: obstinacy, orderliness, rigidity, frugality
o Anal expulsive character: emotional outbursts, disorganization, generosity, rebelliousness
3. Phallic
o Phallic character in males: reaction to castration fear reckless, bold behaviours
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