PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Field Dependence, Pain Tolerance, Causality Conditions

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
PSYB30 – Lecture 10 Purple Text – Profs Speech
(From Lecture 9)
Path Analysis
- Data analysis technique that is commonly used in self-determination theory
- Visually displays variable relationships; way of understanding a number of relationships
between variables
- Extension of multiple regression
o Multiple regression more than one predictive variable and more than one
outcome variable
- Always includes a visual display of different variables involved and relationships
between them
- Researcher tries to figure out which variables are related to which other variables and
they sketch out a path diagram
o Researcher sketches out what they think the relationship is going to be
- To read: numbers are correlation coefficients (higher numbers, stronger pathways), see if
data fits with model
Causality Orientations
- Relates to self-determination theory and that people have characteristic styles of orienting
towards the environment
- Individual differences in the ways that people self-regulate
- Typical ways of self-regulating people have stable causality orientation across a variety
of contexts
- With causality-oriented people you can see what their relationship is to different things
- 3 orientations
o Autonomous orientation person sees themselves as being more autonomous
Assesses how much the person is oriented towards affects of the
environment that are intrinsically motivating
Self-starter, initiates activities, looks for feedback, interested in improving,
takes responsibility for behaviour
o Controlled orientation person sees themselves as being controlled by external
factors
Person’s behaviour is more controlled by rewards and deadlines, etc.
Somebody who has this orientation, is motivated by material things
wealth, power
More concerned with the ends, than with the means
o Impersonal orientation people doesn’t feel that the ends are not up to them;
outcomes are out of their control
Person is amotivated not really motivated to do anything, wants things to
stay the way they are
- Table 9.3
- Causality is measured using the general causality orientations scale
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LECTURE 10
The Cognitive Approach
- Cognitive perspectives focus on the way that people think
- Focus on differences in information processing, includes awareness and thinking
- Cognition:
o Awareness and thinking
o Anything considered a mental act = cognitive
o Specific mental acts: perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing,
anticipating, etc.
o Cognitive approach – interested in the way that people interpret events in the
environment, how they perceive them, differences in memory processes, etc.
- Three levels of cognition of interest to personality psychologists
o Perception: process of imposing order on information received by our sense
organs
Different ways that people make sense of the stimuli in their environment,
what they notice, what they take in, what they construct from it
Subjective, whereas sensation is objective
o Interpretation: process of making sense of, or explaining, events in the world
Involves more complex cognitive processes than perception, some
conscious processes
o Beliefs and desires: standards and goals people develop for evaluating themselves
and others
Different ways people choose to pursue their goals
o Some people include intelligence, if intelligence was going to fall somewhere, it
would fall under the domain of cognition
Personality Revealed through Perception
- Field dependence-independence
- Pain tolerance and sensation reducing-augmenting
Field Dependence-Independence
- Field independent (relative to field dependent) people can focus on details despite
background information
o People are able to look at the details when there is a lot of clutter in the
background
o Applies to a lot of sensory domains i.e. being able to focus on specific sound
when there is a lot of noise, also with picking out ideas
- Testing field-dependence; 2 ways to test field dependence
o Embedded figures test (EFT)
Requires you to find certain figures embedded in a larger figure
Faster you are finding all the items, the more field independent you are
o Rod and frame test (RFT)
Uses an apparatus
Dark room, person faces apparatus, images with rod in middle, frame
around
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Document Summary

Purple text prof"s speech (from lecture 9) Data analysis technique that is commonly used in self-determination theory. Visually displays variable relationships; way of understanding a number of relationships between variables. Extension of multiple regression: multiple regression more than one predictive variable and more than one outcome variable. Always includes a visual display of different variables involved and relationships between them. Researcher tries to figure out which variables are related to which other variables and they sketch out a path diagram: researcher sketches out what they think the relationship is going to be. To read: numbers are correlation coefficients (higher numbers, stronger pathways), see if data fits with model. Relates to self-determination theory and that people have characteristic styles of orienting towards the environment. Individual differences in the ways that people self-regulate. Typical ways of self-regulating people have stable causality orientation across a variety of contexts. With causality-oriented people you can see what their relationship is to different things.

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