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Lecture 1 Notes

Course Code
Marc A Fournier

of 2
Lecture 1
Personality brings a several of sub-disciplines together. Goal of discipline is to
describe individual differences how one is different from others. What are
there origins and consequences?
Where do differences in personality come from?
Grand theories of origins nature of scientific theory and how it relates to
Introduction: The scientific study of the person
Freud good scientific theory of personality
Personality traits tell us about people at first acquaintance when you first
meet someone you start to learn about their personality traits psychology of
the stranger heritable, produced by environment, preserved over life course
Personality traits can be assessed in a short period of time can predict a
wide range of outcomes such as marriage, divorce, mortality, etc.
Personality traits are but an outline a sketch of the individual. What is it
beyond personality traits that we need to know to fully understand a person?
We need to know what is on a persons mind their motivations, life tasks,
- Even knowing persons motives, concerns, etc there is still more to know
about a person what we know about a person when we know ourselves
Scientific theories and constructs how they are related to each other and
related to the idea of hypotheses what is desirable in a scientific theory of
Scientific theories can be reduced to a certain number of concepts, consist of
Defined constructs that are linked by rules, which suggest
Testable hypotheses
Set of interrelated statements about some phenomena in the world
Begins with systematic observation a general idea of what you are seeing
Constructs are the explanatory variables we use as psychologists an idea we
use to make sense of things we see in the world, constructs are often not
observable, intelligence is a construct.
Correspondence rule this construct is related to that construct, generate
testable hypotheses testable predictions about relationships with constructs
Astrology fails as scientific theory not falsifiable
Palm reading also fails as scientific theory no explanation as to how
various characteristics are meant to relate to the outcomes
Our theories about people are implicit never tested or formalized
Implicit personality theory Dr. Phil
Dependency is unhealthy what does this mean and how do we formalize
Formalize definition of dependency things in the world that are
described when using the term dependency people who are highly
dependent are people constantly seeking reassurance, prone to feelings
of abandonment, etc form the construct of dependency
Construct of health? Fact that there is physical health, how many sick
days, how many classes missed? All indicators of physical health
emotional health? How often do you feel joy opposed to depression?
Correspondence rule how one construct relates to another construct
health example
A good theory translates correspondence rules into hypotheses prediction
about how data should be related to other data
DEQ standardized measure of dependency
More likely you endorse things about yourself on this scale, the more
dependent you are
Then measure health emotional health PENAS measures feelings
of negative emotion. In addition to measuring dependency measure
negative emotions felt as well with penas correspondence rule states
that dependency should be related to personal health
Very little relationship between dependency and feelings of negative
affect, tendency to seek reassurance is not systematically related to
feeling unhappy about life based on knowledge go back to theory and
revise it