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Lecture 7

Personality Lecture 7


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Oren Amitay
Lecture
7

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Lecture 7
Rule that an experimenter uses to determine when particular responses will be
reinforced
Difference between Partial and Continuous conditioning
Continuous—you keep reinforcing behaviour. Every response followed
rapidly by reinforcement
oIf you want to teach a new behaviour use continuous reinforcement
Partial: Reinforcement delivered only some of the time
oIf you want to teach a new behaviour use continuous reinforcement
We don’t learn everything from trial and error—We sometimes observe
oWe don’t have learn everything from other the experiences of others
think learning French
Chapter 9
BANDURA
Viewed people as agents, or originators, of experience
oWe play active roles in our lives
Human agency is the ability to act and make things happen
Agency entails
oIntentionality
oForethought
oSelf-reactiveness
oSelf-reflectiveness
Triadic Reciprocal Causation
oThe debate of Nature Vs Nurture does not exist—it is an interaction
between the two
oOur behaviour is a product and also a reactant of our Personality within
our environmentThe three feed into each other
oSeems basic but once upon a time there was a debate on whether or not
Personality exist—Michel thought that there isn’t Personality
He thought that Personality is behaviourism—and behaviour is due
to the environment—He thought that if there were personality
traits then the same trait would show no matter what the
environment—People who are usually extraverted will not be
extraverted at a funeral.
oEx. Kevin goes to a club and Kevin sees that all the men that are being
polite are being laughed at by the women
Environment —Club
Environmental Determinates —What’s happening at the club
Nice guys being laughed at
Jerks are getting the women
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So then Kevin decides to act like a jerk—Behaviour
Determinates (Kevin’s behaviour is determined by the
environment)
OR—Kevin can decide to be the nice guy (Behaviour
Determinate), then all the other men at the club will start acting
nice (Environmental Determinates)—Kevin’s behaviour affects
the environment
Behaviour learned through observation either intentionally or accidentally
Observational learning = learning through process of following a model
Imitation = mimicking the model
MODELING = matching the structure or style of behaviour
Bobo doll—if kids see someone acting a certain way with a Bobo doll and that
person either gets rewarded for it or punished, children will respond similarly or
differently depending on the out come—the child does not have act it out
themselves originally
oIt depends on the person, If a 5 year old boy watches a 5 year old girl, 5
year old boy, 30 year old woman, 30 year old man punching the Bobo doll
and getting good results
If the model is something the little boy wants to aspire to—30
YEAR OLD MAN
Usually copy someone who is more like you—5 YEAR OLD BOY
o3 Factors that influence modeling
Characteristics of the model
Attributes of the observer
Reward consequences associated with a behaviour
From Reinforcement to Self-Regulation
oAlmost any behaviour can be learned without direct experience
oObservational learning occurs while one is being exposed to modeled
activity and before any response has been made
oWhy are we in University?
Wish to be self-actualization
So parents don’t kick us out of the house—Primary Reinforcement
(Shelter)
Money—Secondary Reinforcement
Get a parent’s esteem—Primary Reinforcement
oReinforcement
Extrinsic—stickers, grades, money
Intrinsic—getting applause you get validation, it makes you feel
worthy in the inside
Before you go to school children learn for the sake of learning
Humans are born innately curious—We are born to learn
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