Personality Lecture 8

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Published on 1 Feb 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Lecture 8
GORDON ALLPORT
Born in 1897 in Indiana
Attended Harvard as an undergraduate and graduate student
Became an instructor of social ethics at Harvard
Taught the first course offered in personality
Took 1800 words to describe personality (afterwards it was narrowed to 15 and
then to 5 to 3)
Nature of Personality
Personality a real entity
Hoped that neuropsychological and psychological research would one day show
us the location of personality
Distinguished between CONTINUITY theories of personality that are closed and
admit little change and DISCONTINUITY theories that are open and provide for
the extensive growth.
oContinuity theory says we have a certain number of traits, behaviours,
habits, abilities, all we do is modify, we change, we develop these traits
oDiscontinuity model says as we get older we get new traits
Guy on first day
6 traits
Unempathic
Neurotic
Arrogant
Humorous
Dramatic
Traits
Neuropsychic structures within a person that influence behaviour; they are not
simply labels we use to descibe or classify behaviours
COMMON TRAITShypothetical constructs that permit us to make
comparison between individuals
PERSONAL DISPOSITIONunique to each person
oCardinal—so pervasive that they influence almost every behaviour of an
individual
oCentral—highly characteristic of individual
oSecondary—specific, focused tendencies
The Proprium, Functional Autonomy
Central experiences of self-awareness that people have as they grow and move
forward
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Propriate functions
Functional Autonomy—implies that adult motivation is not necessarily tied to the
past
oPerseverative
oPropriate
ALLPORT IS A HUMANIST, HE DEALT WITH THE PRESENT, SAID
DON’T DWELL ON THE PAST, LOOK TO THE FUTURE—HIS
THEORY TALKED ABOUT MOVING TO SELF-ACTUALIZATION.
Allport’s Propriate Functions
Allport’s proprium is described in terms of it’s functions or the things that it does
Function Definition
Bodily selfKnowing one’s body and it’s limits
Self-identity Awareness of inner sameness and
continuity
Self-esteemPride in the ability to do things
Self-extension Sense of possession and valuing of others
Self-image Sense of measuring up to expectations of
others
Self-as-rational-coperSense of self as active problem-solving
agent
Proriate striving Development of long term purposes and
goals
A Definition of Maturity (GARANTEED ON THE EXAM)
Extension of Sense of Self
Warm relating of self to others
Emotional security (Self-Acceptance)
Realistic Perception, Skills and Assignment
Self-Objectification (Insight and Humour)
oTo be mature means to be able to laugh at yourself
oMaturity means you feel comfortable with yourself
Unifying Philosophy of Life
Idiographic Vs Nomothetic
Nomothetic approach—look at commonalities, universalities
Allport encouraged idiographic approach to study that centres on the individual in
order to understand uniqueness
HENRY MURRAY
Came up with the TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)
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Document Summary

6 traits: unempathic, neurotic, arrogant, humorous, dramatic. Don"t dwell on the past, look to the future his. Allport"s proprium is described in terms of it"s functions or the things that it does. Sense of measuring up to expectations of others. Idiographic vs nomothetic: nomothetic approach look at commonalities, universalities, allport encouraged idiographic approach to study that centres on the individual in order to understand uniqueness. ) used a large sample, but also did a thorough investigation: used a holistic approach, idiographic, interdisciplinary approach, know whatever the text says about the tat ch 10, know last page about murray. To surrender and submit to others, accept blame and punishment. To accomplish difficult tasks, overcoming obstacles and becoming expert. To be close and loyal to another person, pleasing them and winning their friendship and attention. To forcefully overcome an opponent, controlling, taking revenge or punishing them. To break free from constraints, resisting coercion and dominating authority.