PSYB30H3 Lecture 4: Lecture 4.docx
ProfessorMarc A Fournier
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American education system – more secondary graduates go to university
•Reason: Human capital – more university graduates will contribute to the knowledge society and make
the nation more globally competitive
Canada – more students in post-secondary bound programs and courses in high school
•Increasingly, selective function of education is occurring at the postsecondary level, rather than in high
•Management programs can charge very high fees to enter the program
•Law school – 25,000 a year to 31,000 a year. What is significant of high tuition fees? None, it restricts
students from higher education. It is to establish more scholarships or free loans. The U of T law school
oLoans – many normal class workers are reluctant to take loans b/c of years of debt. There are
talented individuals that are capable to pursue expensive degrees
Higher education is stratified according to
•Selectivity of institution – grades, use of high school courses as gatekeepers
oSelectivity is more apparent in postsecondary education than high school education.
oYou are offered an acceptance letter – you didn’t choose which school to attend
•Some countries (e.g. US, UK, France) have unambiguously hierarchal systems of higher education
oUK - The crème of the crop attended in Oxford Cambridge – students there are privileged
oUS – Harvard and Yale – USA has a lot of other higher education institution
In Canada, the crucial distinction is between university and community college. It is less easy to spot hierarchy
in Canada than USA, especially between universities.
•Davies and Guppy – badges and abilities – different kind of educational hierarchal nature. (E.g. a BA
from University is worth more than a diploma than a community college – it is a crucial distinction)
•Rankings of university is much more informal (E.g. difference b/w Windsor University and U of T is
•Introduction of market forces had the effect of changing the nature of status within universities
oHistorically (from 18th century to 19th century), the arts and the humanities discipline (E.g.
history, English vs. management or engineering) in university would have the most prestige and
oMarket force – we see professional schools (e.g. law, engineering, management) as the best
How is Canadian university system different from the American one?
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