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Lecture 4

Lecture 4.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Lecture
4

Page:
of 3
PSYB30 Lecture 4
Allport thinks about biological nature of personality and human brain
Personality is an explanation for things (Why?) Causality
En passant personality serves as a FUNCTION/REASON help to regulate how we do things
everydat
Gordon Allport Lexical Hypothesis
- Original Definition; The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical
systems that determine his [or her] unique adjustments to the environment seems to think it’s
reactive
- Revised Definition: The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical
systems that determine his [or her] characteristic behavior and thought
- Trait: Neuropsychic structure having capacity to render many stimuli functionally and initiate and
guide equivalent forms of adaptive and expressive behavior
Traits Common vs. Individual individ trait only possessed by 1
Traits Cardinal, Central and 2ndary cardinal so pervasive that all aspect of person’s functioning
can be traced back to it, central 5-10, secondary - limited to scope, less central to define
personality
Where’s the taxonomy?
- Lexical Hypothesis: Those individual differences that are most salient and socially relevant in
people’s lives will eventually become encoded into their language; the more important such a
difference, the more likely is it to become expressed as a single word
- Allport’s Psycholoexical Study: Sorting 55,000 terms in Webster’s Dictionary, Allpoort and Odbert
found 18,000 terms to show “capacity to distinguish behavior of one human form another”
4 Columns:
A. Potential personality traits (4,504)
B. Temporary states and activities (4,541)
C. Evaluative judgments of personal conduct and reputation (5,226)
D. Miscellaneous termsphysical qualities, capacities & talents, etc. (3,682)
- Factor Analysis
Variable: Any quality can be >2 values
Correlation: Index of how 2 variables are co-related
- Factor Analysis: Procedure where large number of observed variables are reduced in small
number called “factors”
Raymond Cattell - Factor Analysis
- Reduced list of 4,500 traits to 171 clusters asked people to rate each other on 171 clusters =
14,535 correlations
- Reduced 171 35, constructed self-report and peer-reports
- Factor-analyzed 100s of rating of 35 factors 12 factors
- Surface Traits: Sets of correlated observation
- Source Traits: Underlying causes of behaviour
Temperament traits; determine stylistic aspects of response
Dynamic traits: set the person into goal-relevant action
Ability traits: determine the efficacy of goal pursuit
Emergence of “Big 5
- Lewis R. Goldberg
- Big 5: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness/Intellect
Summary
- Allport argued theory of personality centers around TRAITS, and summarized all trait terms,
organizing trait lexicon in a system would keep psychologist “at work for a lifetime”
Mischel and Fournier at centre at bar,
Published monogram in 1968, started person situation debate basically debunked personality
theory OS MANY PEOPLE LEFT
Walter Mischel Paradigm Crisis
- Cross-situational correlation coeffficents rarely supass 3.0
- Situationist: Behaviour is SITUATION-SPECIFIC than CROSS-SITUATION CONSISTENT
- Aggregationist: Epstein: Single indices of behaviour contain sizable component of error variance
error randomly distributed = process of aggregating/averaging should separate SIGNAL form
NOISE
IT’S NO WONDER THAT OCRRELATIONS ARE AS LOW AS THEY ARE B/C YOUR STUDIES YOU’VE
BEEN SUMAMRIZING ARESIMILAR IN DEISNG 1 MEASUREMENT OF PEOPLE HERE AND ANOTER
AND CORRELATE THEM
SINGLE MEASUREMENT STUDIES SUCK
AGGREGATE/AVERAGE YOUR THINGS, REPEAT THE STUDY >1 TIME
- interactionist: Mischel and SHODA: Cognitive Affective Processing System
THE PATTERN IS WHAT IS STABLE
1. Psychological Feature of Situation: Person’s subjective interpretation of situation determines
how person will behave (that has MEANING to person)
2. Mediating Structures
A. Self-regulatory plans - Subjective goals and standards
B. Encoding strategies - Subjective interpretations of the situation
C. Competencies - Subjective beliefs about one’s skills and abilities
D. Expectancies - Subjective beliefs about behavior-outcome probabilities
E. Values - Subjective values for specific reinforcements
- Your social behaviour is function of
A. What you want/goals self-regulatory plans
B. What situation you see yourself in (Encoding strategies)
C. What behaviours you think you can do (competencies)
D. What the outcomes are (expectancies)
E. What values you assign to those outcome (Values)
3. Behaviour Signature: Expression of organization of mediating structures/processes; stable, intra-
individual pattern of behavioural variability across distinct situations
Summary
- Mischel SITUATION is determinant of behaviour
- Epstein 0 AGGREGATIO across situations
- Michel INTERACTION as determinant of behaviour
The Camp Ediko Data
- If behavioural signatures are stable expression of personality system 00> should not change over
time = STABLE
- You would find 2 people to have same behavioural signatures in same situation
- Experiment
84 children (60 boys, 24 girls), age 6years 13 years
Procedure: 77 adults collected hourly observation of behaviour over 6-week period/167
hours/child
Psycho. Situation: Peer approach, peer tease, adult praise, adult warn, adult punish
Behavioural Categories: Physical Aggression, verbal aggression, whining, compliance, prosocial
talk
1. For each category of behaviour, divide records of each child to create separate situation-
behaviour profiles
2. Index stability of behavioural signature by correlating child’s 2 profiles together
- Conclusion; Children demonstrate evidence of stable behavioural signatures
- Limitations:
1. Use of children instead of adults
2. Use of behaviorally disordered participants
3. Use of behavioral and situational categories that are potentially limited in their generality
Summary
- Shoda et. Al demonstrate that behaviour varies across situation each pattern of variability is
stable expression of their personality
- Study was limited in behaviourally disordered children at camp evidence has been obtained w/
adult community samples (Fournier, Moskowitz, & Zuroff, 2008)
Summary of Today’s Lecture
In the pursuit of a comprehensive trait taxonomy, researchers have used factor analysis to find
the dimensions underlying everyday trait terms
For several decades, the person-situation debate challenged researchers to consider whether
people are in fact “traited” at all
Today, trait concepts remain alive and well as the most widely studied of personality variables