PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Innatism

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17 Mar 2012
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PSYB30 Lecture 3
Part I: Social Learning
Innatism and Empiricism
Story Simon Lemoge
- Early Behaviourism and Learning Culture
1. Jon B. Watson: Applied Pavlovian techniques to 9m-o child to show complex emotional
responses/fear could be learned through classical conditioning Loud noise is paired w/ rat then
just rat produces fear (started being afraid of things similar to “white rat”)
2. B. F. Skinner (1904-1990):
Extended Watson’s behaviorism beyond the level of Pavlovian conditioning into the more
complex arena of voluntary behavior
Thorndike’s Law of Effect—the effect produced by a behavior determines the behavior’s future
probability of occurrence cat and maze trial and error (3-4 mins)
Introduced the concepts of reinforcement, punishment, and shaping (process of rewarding
success approximation to a desired behavior)
- Strength of behaviorism was its reliance upon i.) observation, ii.) experimentation, and iii.)
simplicity of explanation
- The weakness of behaviorism was that it lost sight of the learner (i.e., the person) in the study of
learned behavior
- Bandura’s Theory of Social Learning
Emergent Properties: Intentions have causal properties like billiards
Triadic Reciprocal Causation: Person (P), Environment (E), Behavior (B) reciprocal, we select
them!
Fortuitous Determinants in Causal Structures: There is an element of chance in people’s lives
stuff happens (i.e. Bandura gave speech and some guy had to sit at a seat b/c he was late met
love of his life and married shortly)
- 5 Fundamental Human Capabilities
1. Symbolizing Capabilities: Ability to represent evens + relationships in symbolic form, test
possible solution symbolically in thought
2. Vicarious Capabilities: Capacity for observational learning enabling them to expand knowledge
and competencies through modeling and behaviour of others
3. Forethought Capability: Capacity of fore through ability to bring anticipated outcomes to
bear on current activities, anticipation of reinforcement either directly/vicariously
experienced
4. Self-Regulatory Capability: Require substitution of internal regulation and direction of external
sanction/self-regulation
Sub functions of self-regulation: Self-observation, judgmental processes, self-reaction
5. Self-Reflective: Foundation of human agency, expectancy of belief or behavioural competence to
confront a challenge
Sources: Personal/vicarious experiences of success/failure, social support and encouragement,
emotional experiences
Summary
Since the emergence of radical behaviorism, theorists have challenged the primacy of
classical/instrumental
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