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Lecture 5

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Fraternities And Sororities


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Lecture
5

Page:
of 3
PSYB30 - Lecture 5
Introduction to Big 5 Taxonomy
- Common Measures: NEOP-PI R, Big 5 Inventory, Gosling (2003) demonstrate tat 5-facot model could be asses
with as few as 10 items trait- cluster, range of diff circumstances, internal,
- Neuroticism - AFFECT: Anxiety, Angry Hostility, Depression, Self-Consciousness, Impulsiveness, Vulnerability
Correlates: Relationship Difficulties, (-) Affect propensity towards stress, biggest predictor of relationship anxiety/
insecurity
- Extraversion - power: Warmth, Gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeing, (+) emotions
Correlates: Social Dominance, (+) affect tendency to positive social engagement
Cameron Anderson mixed sex dorm, measure personality traits, had frat and sorority and round- robin rate each
other to social status
Most prominent, influential in the eyes of others were the most extraverted
- Agreeableness - LOVE: Trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, tender-mindedness
Correlates: Gratitude and forgiveness, volunteerism also forgiveness
- Conscientiousness - WORK: Competence, Order, Dutifulness, achievement striving, self-disciplines, deliberation
Correlates: Educational and occupational achievement, health and longevity educational performance and
occupational achievement
- Openness to Experience - IDEA: Fantasy, Aesthetics, Feelings, Actions, Ideas, Values
Correlates; Hypnotic Susceptibility, artistic Creativity least understood, many pseudonyms, changed to openness to
exp and openness intellect, high in absorption-
readiness in which you enter trance states (i.e.
hypnosis), tend to be more artistically creative
Emotional and Interpersonal Domains
- Alternative Views on Big 5
Galen’s Temperamental Types
Eysenck’s Interpretation
1.Fight/Flight/Freeze System (FFFS)
o Sensitive to (unconditioned and
conditioned) aversive stimuli
o Associated with the experience of
panic/fear and withdrawal behavior
2.Behavioral Approach System (BAS)
o Sensitive to (unconditioned and
conditioned) appetitive stimuli
o Associated with the anticipation of pleasure and approach behavior
o Believed to be related to individual differences in extraversion
3. Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)
o Sensitive to goal conflict (e.g., conflicts between FFFS & BAS)
o Associated with the experience of
anxiety, worry, and vigilance
o Believed to be related to individual
differences in neuroticism
- Sullivan’s Interpersonalism: Personality is the
relatively pattern of recurrent interpersonal
situations that characterize a human life
- Leary’s Interpretation of Sullivan: Interpersonal
characteristics could be ordered in circular
arrangement”
1. Dominance vs. Submission
2. Love vs. Hate
- Wiggin’s Interpretation stat relationship b/w the
characteristics and how they are alike
MELANCHOLIC
(Earth)
Excess of Black Bile
Sad, Depressed, Anxious
CHOLERIC
(Fire)
Excess of Yellow Bile
Angry, Assertive, Quick to Action
PHLEGMATIC
(Water)
Excess of Phlegm
Calm, Lethargic, Slow to
Action
SANGUINE
(Air)
Excess of Blood
Warm, Optimistic, Easy-Going
Terms are now being used but in different ways
Summary
- N and E define EMOTIONAL LIFE
- E and A define INTERPERSONAL LIFE
- Core feature of extraversion SOCIABLITY
or REWARD SENSITIVITY?
Core Feature of Extraversion
- Sociability McCrae and Costa found
adjectives w/ highest loading of
extraversion were “affectionate”, “fun-
loving”, “friendly”, “sociable” talkative” – all individuals experience higher levesl of positive affect with others (thus
extraversion)
- Reward Sensitivity Individual difference in positive incentive extraverts experience higher levels of positive
affect across range of rewarding situation prior test requires a was to sees the preferences
Luca et al (2000) Scale to assess preference for social activity w/o reference to reward elements, data form
7000 students in 40 countries extraversion correlated w/ reward sensitivity not sociability
- Social Attention: Individual difference to attract and hold social attention
The Social Attention Scale (Ashton et al., 2002) tendency to attract social attention to people = E^
You like to entertain others
You often go out to meet new people
You are frequently the center of attention
You enjoy being the host of a social event
You often tell stories or jokes in a group
You are often “the life of the party”
Campbell: Extraverted men were more likely to emerge as leaders than introverted men, but only in female-
evaluative conditions when hot women, extraverted men work for their money, hierarchy of extraverted men
Summary
Three distinct conceptualizations of extraversion have been proposed: i) the sociability hypothesis, ii) the
reward sensitivity hypothesis, and iii) the social attention hypothesis. Although sociability and reward
sensitivity are clearly components of extraversion, the trait of extraversion appears at its core to be the
capacity to attract and hold (positive) social attention.
Summary of Today’s Lecture
We can think of the “Big Five” as subsuming both the interpersonal and intrapersonal domains of socio-
emotional functioning.
Although the trait of extraversion seems relevant to both emotional and interpersonal functioning, the core
feature of extraversion appears to be social attention-holding power.