Lecture 2.docx

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17 Mar 2012
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PSYB30 Lecture 2
The Structure of Evolutionary Theory
- Variation
- Inheritance
- Selection
- Differences in our design impact our reproductive
success property of design can have effect ton rates
of reproduction
- Evolutionary Processes:
1. Natural Selection evolution of adaptive
characteristic of survival benefits of those having
them
2. Sexual Selection evolution of adaptive
characteristics b/c reproductive benefits bestowed
on those having them
Intrasexual Competitions (i.e. stags’ antlers) within a given sex
Intersexual Selection (i.e. peacocks’ plumage) between sexes
- Products of Evolutionary Process
1. Adaptations (“Evidence of Special Design”)
Species-Typical bone is white is NOT adaptive,
the property is a spandrel b/c of Ca in them =
strength and durability, incident correlate =
adaptive form strength as organisms
“Suspiciously” Functional
Condensed Records of Ancestral Conditions
shows how are species confronted past
problems to produce current selves
Adaptation DOES NOT EQUAL Optimal Design
Constraints on Optimal Design
1. Time Lags - hedgehog curls up into little
ball when scared (in historical
environments) but not cars
Adaptation works only if present situation
is similar to past situation
2. Local Optima example of climbing a mountain
3. Insufficient Variation The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA): The
ancestral conditions and selection pressures under which an adaptation evolved. The
human EEA ~ the Pleistocene Epoch (1.6 m.y.a 10,000 y.a)
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Life in the Pleistocene
SURVIVOR!
2. Spandrels (“By-Products”)
- The Attachment System:
Hypothetical behavioural system
that facilitated our ancestors’
survival by encouraging them to
seek out caregivers under
conditions of threat and to explore
the social environment under
conditions of safety
Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
imaginary string with
appropriate distance in safe and
scary situation
The Infant’s Ties to its
Mother:
1. Mother as “secure base”
(exploratory behaviour)
2. Mother as “safe haven” (proximity-seeking)
The Attachment System internal model (parental neglect vs. loving family)
1. An evolved, goal-directed, behavioural system
2. i.e. a “mommy stat” or “proximity-stat
Working Models
1. Internal representations of infants’ early experiences of parental support or parental neglect
- Individual Differences in Attachment
Ainsworth’s Strange Situation: Parent and infant enter the Strange Situation
1. Infant explores
2. Introduction of stranger
3. Parent leaves infant with stranger first
separation
4. Parent returns, strangers leaves quietly first
reunion
5. Parents leaves infant along in room second
separation
6. Stranger returns, initiates play with infant
7. Parent returns, stranger leaves quietly
second reunion
NOTES: Infants are 12-20 months, each episode is
~3 minutes
Childhood Correlates: Mother-Child Interaction
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