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Lecture 8

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Belongingness, Motivation, Cognitive Evaluation Theory

Course Code
Marc A Fournier

of 10
Lec 8 Goals & needs: self-determination theory
Part I humanism
Part II self-determination theory
Part III Personal Gorals & self-concordance (free to pursue (a variety of) goals, goals
are not all equal ;)
Humanism (positive) (psychoanalysis (negative) & behaviorism (neutral))
An optimistic view of person as inherently good
Views the human being as rational, purposeful, and autonomous, capable of
creativity and experiencing deep and profound insights into reality
The “third force” of psychology, a viable view point on human nature that is
distinctively from
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
“The organism has but one basic tendency and striving to actualize, maintain,
and enhance the experiencing organism” (Rogers, 1951)
The organismic valuing processes (OVP)
Humans have a fundamental capacity to perceive the growth relevant
implications of their experiences and choices
Every organism is able to evaluate the environment in terms of its reality
Ongoing needs speak to our needs knowledge
The fully functioning person
Openness to experience can you be atuned to your own
Capacity to experience
Existential living live in the moment
Not overruled by the past and future being here now
Feel free  do what feels right
Trust intuition when needs are met in a way
No guarantee  fully functioned
On becoming a person
Positive regard
Need to be accepted, valued, loved, and approved
Conditions of worth
That need to be met receive love and approval
Conditional positive regard
I will love you if… don’t need to be declared, can be
insidious, be experienced
Compartmentalize disease
Client-centered therapy
Unconditional positive regard
Unconditional acceptive, no reservation or hesitation  desire a value or
Empathic understanding
Take client’s internal frame of reference to see the world as the client sees it
Adopt the client’s perspective, express things in counselor’s own words
Embody what client’s explanation in their own words
Incorporative  feel good (not compartmentalize) restorative
Abraham Maslow (1908- 1970)
Self-actualization the need to fulfill unique potential
Deficiency notices
Esteem: recognition, prestige
Belongingness and love: social, emotional
Safety: security, protection, shelter
Physiological : thirst, hunger warmth, sleep -- immediate physiological needs
Being- values / meta-needs
Higher-order needs that emerge once the deficiency notices have been satisfied
E.g., truth-seeking, beauty-seeking
Self- reinforcing
Fulfill the need doesn’t make it go away  reinforce the need
Peak experience
Following peak experience, individuals feel
At the peak of their abilities
Integrated, whole and unified
Creative, self-confident, and flexible
Spontaneous, expressive, innocent transformative for the ppl who
have it
Flaws with Maslow’s hierarchy
Priority of needs
e.g., Russian writers wrote in extreme conditions; their lower needs suffer, but
still achieved self- actualization
Ordering of needs
Right and only order??? Love  esteem or the other way around?
Definition of needs
Surprising variation in what needs to be satisfied for one need
Summary of part I
Humanistic theories underscore the idea that the supreme motivator for human
behavior is the strive to actualize and perfect the self
The question is then whether the person’s environment facilitates/ frustrates his/
her attempts  satisfy this fundamental human needs
Overview of Part II
Self-determination (macro-) theory
Cognitive evaluation theory