Lecture 2

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24 Feb 2011
Lecture 2 PSYB30
7 widely accepted criteria (In systematic order by Fournier)
Coherence -logical/internal consistency, should not contradict itself
Testability - give rise to hypotheses which are clearly falsifiable
Empirically Validity - theories should be consistent with data
collected or to be collected in the future, otherwise thrown out
Comprehensiveness - Explanatory scope of particular theory
-i.e. Freudian psychoanalysis very comprehensive
theory as it tries to explain all aspects of human
-it is desirable to have comprehensiveness so many parts
and information to the theory
Parsimonious Simple and elegant theory means less complicated
and easy to understandable theory
Utility(Usefulness) A theory which translates solutions to human
problems (socially useful to generate solutions to real world problems,
such as psychoanalysis and behaviourism)
Generative Theories should excite scientist & provoke interest to
generate new questions
Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) - started out as a neurologist and introduced
psychotherapy The talking cure & observed patients having mental conflicts, but
claimed to have biological conflicts, but there was no biological predisposition
Sex & Aggression (Freud)
Believed the human mind is a psychic system which required energy to operate,
known as Libido, drives the psychological machine, and cannot be destroyed or
created and can only be shunted from one mechanism to another
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Libido is the energy which emerged from human instincts, reflecting darwins
theories, so human thinking is instinctual in behaviour relevant to survival and
sex/reproduction (put into one set named libido)
Libido Any life sustaining, need satisfying, pleasure oriented urge (innate energy
that drives organism instinctually for survival & reproduction)
Later named Libido as Eros (life instinct Energy which drives you towards life
preserving Action) & Secondary, Complimentary concept called Thanatos (Death
Instinct urges we have to destroy, harm, or aggress towards others or oneself)
Libidinal Organization Organization of the libido around a particular organ or
Psychosexual Stages: Libidinal Organization
Birth - 18 Months: Oral Stage
Libido focused around Mouth, lips, tongue
Infants take great pleasure in being fed, and oral substitutes, (sucking thumb)
After 18 months get teeth and realize can chew/swallow food demarcates first of many
stages of becoming active over time
During this time is the central issue is trust, so infant relies on caregiver to provifre
gratifcationf or needs
Id Reservoir of the Libido & only structure that is present from birth
Anal Stage: 1 ½ - 3
Toilet training is known as a metaphoric battle, where child battles to chose when
and where to use the washroom, while caregiver tries to regulate the toilet training
which rewards approval from parents and society
During this time is when Ego emerges
Phallic Stage: Ages 3-5
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