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Lecture 14

PSYB30H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Psychopathology, Motivation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Lecture
14

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Lecture 14- March 9, 2011
Basic Psychological Needs
Autonomy(sense of ownership over ones actions),
Competence (sense of mastery) , & Relatedness
Growth-Promoting Contextual Factors
Autonomy Support (the extent to which the environment
provides choices; how much initiation is encouraged; the extent to
which pressure is minimized), Structure (the extent to which the
contingencies between behaviours and outcomes are
understandable; to what extent have guidelines for performance
made clear to you; what extent is feedback given), & Involvement
(to what extent do those in the context care about you and your
development, are concerned about your welfare and progress->
your needs for relatedness will be met)
Growth & Well-Being
Needs are nutriments essential to a living entitys growth, health,
and integrity
(Deci & Ryan, 1991)
Plants need water, sunlight and specific minerals; growth, health,
and integrity are compromised when any one of these nutriments is
withheld or unavailable
People need autonomy, competence, and relatedness; satisfaction of
these psychological needs facilitates growth and promotes a sense of
well-being
Internalization: there is a degree to which things become internalized
External Regulation
Acting in accord w/extrinsic rewards & punishments (i.e.
for money, to stay out of jail)
Introjection
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Acting in accord w/partially internalized extrinsic contingencies,
which are experienced as self-esteem-related feelings (anxiety,
guilt)
Identification
Acting in accord w/fully internalized (but compartmentalized)
extrinsic contingencies, which are consciously endorsed &
personally valued
Integrated Regulation (highest form of internalization)
Acting in accord w/fully internalized extrinsic contingencies,
which have been unified w/other identifications, values, & needs
Self-Determination
Authenticity, we suggest, is a descriptor for behavior that is an
expression of the true self and for which one accepts full
responsibility. When an action is endorsed by its author, the
experience is that of integrity and cohesion the experience is
one of being true to ones self. Authenticity is thus self-
determination.
We feel a sense of unity and wholeness when we engage in these
self-determined ways
(Deci & Ryan, 1991)
A Daily Diary Approach
Reis, Sheldon, et al. (2000):
Between-Person (Trait) Comparisons
Why is this person/group of people happy when this
other person/group of people is not?
Maybe those that are the happiest are also the ones
who have the highest level of needs satisfaction
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Within-Person (Day-to-Day) Comparisons
Putting aside the question of how generally happy I
am, what accounts for why I am happier on some days
than on others?
Predictors
Trait Predictors
Self-Determination (measure of choiceful behavior)
Effectance (multidimensional self-esteem inventory)
Connectedness (attachment & loneliness-reversed)
Day-to-Day Predictors
-Recall 3 activities and rate:
Autonomy (their reasons for doing it)
Competence (how effective they felt doing it)
Relatedness (how closely connected they felt to others)
Prediction of Well-Being
t
(Between-Person)
Self-determination 1.39
Effectance 2.00*
Connectedness 1.54
(Within-Person)-> In what days or activities did you report the highest
levels of subjective levels of being
Lagged effect: 5.22***
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