Class Notes (920,607)
CA (542,313)
UTSC (32,877)
Psychology (8,010)
PSYB30H3 (540)
Lecture

Lecture 2

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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- Large # of theoretical approaches
- Remember: every theory is not as good as every other theory.
- Criteria that have been accepted and established.
- 7 criteria
Desiderata for a Scientific Theory of Personality
- coherent, testable, & empirically valid
- comprehensive
Theories should be testable. Consistent with data we have collected or
will collect in the future. Any data that does not match has to be thrown
out or revised.
- comprehensiveness and parsimony
comprehensiveness : explanatory scope of a particular theory. Some will
try to explain more than another.
Eg. Freudian analysis strives to explain a lot.
Prefer theory that explains more than less, all things being equal.
Pay a price to understand a wider range of phenomenon.
New variable, becomes increasingly complicated.
- simple and elegant is most desirable.
- Prefer the one that introduces the least # of variables.
- To be parsimonious is to be simple and elegant.
- Parsimony and comprehensiveness traded off against eachother.
- Strive to find the right balance.!
!
!
!
- "#$%&'$()!*%(+!$,,'*-$(*+%&.!&+'/(*+%&.!)(-0!
- Real world problems.!
- Psychoanalysis, behaviouralism, etc. !
www.notesolution.com
- Generated forms of psychotherapy ! help people overcome ways
of living.!
- Societal utility.!
- Lastly we would like our theories to be generative : excite
scientists, invoke questions and challenges them to generate new
work, ideas, things in the lab, etc.!
- Excite more interest, more theories than others do!
!
- Freud : more than biological reasons, began to think we need to get
patients to become aware of their conflicts, bringing them into
consciousness, resolve the conflicts, conflicts would resolve,
responsible for symptoms, symptoms would go away, etc.
- Freud would find things and then get rid of them if they didnt
work.
- Talking therapy ! then turned into what today is psychotherapy.
- Freud challenged Victorian ideas,
- Ocean that is your mind, (ocean : unconscious) very little control
over what your life is.
Basic Insticts : Sex & Aggression
- evolutionary biography discussed early in career
- human mind : psychic system, operates on energy, reflects
physical sciences.
- Refered to that energy : libido. Drives psychological machine
(energy)
- Cannot be created or destroyed, only relocated / redirected
- Human mind : mechanical fashion.
- Libido : energy that emerges on human insteincts.
- Libido : any life sustaining need satisfying or pleasure oriented
urge.
- Innate energy driving organism instinctually towards its own
survival and reproduction.
- Eros / Libido ! life instinct
- Phanatos ! complimentory concept ! death, harm others /
oneself. (came up later in career)
- Separate idea towards destruction.
- Still refer to living urges by the term libido. Libidino.
www.notesolution.com
- Critically, believed there was a develoipmental sequence,
- Libido became organized or centered around a particular biological
nature or function.
- Infancy ! adulthood.
- Organizes around particular areas of the body.
- Libidino organization.
- Refer to that, as an erogenous zone. (ero ! life instinct)
- Each stage, particular develoipmental challenge taken that
requires resolution.
- First : year and a half of life,
- Oral stage, mouth, lips, tongue.
- Can chew their food (realize) ! more active in approach to
environment
- Seeking need gratification from the environment.
- Infant caregiver relationship is paramount
- Primary issue : can the infant rely on the caregiver for the
gratification of its needs.
- Only one personality structure in place : the id.
- The resovoir of the libidol.
- Ie libido lake / ocean !
Anal Stage
- ages 1 ! & 3
- organized around
- toddler develops sense of autonomy / self-mastery
- going to the bathroom
- battle of toilet training that is significant.
- They proceed properly through this stage ! proper regulation of
your own biological urges : gratification from others.
- Determine whos in control of their behaviour
- Regulating ones own biological processes ! win approval.
- Willful self development.
- Emergence of the ego.
The Phallic Stage
- 3&5 yrs old
- libido organized around genitals
- as children are discovering pleasure, protosexual feelings.
- Children are looking for an object to direct basic pleasureable
feelings towards.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
*+,-.* ,*! - Large # of theoretical approaches - Remember: every theory is not as good as every other theory. - Criteria that have been accepted and established. - 7 criteria Desiderata for a Scientific Theory of Personality - coherent, testable, & empirically valid - comprehensive Theories should be testable. Consistent with data we have collected or will collect in the future. Any data that does not match has to be thrown out or revised. - comprehensiveness and parsimony comprehensiveness : explanatory scope of a particular theory. Some will try to explain more than another. Eg. Freudian analysis strives to explain a lot. Prefer theory that explains more than less, all things being equal. Pay a price to understand a wider range of phenomenon. New variable, becomes increasingly complicated. - simple and elegant is most desirable. - Prefer the one that introduces the least # of variables. - To be parsimonious is to be simple and elegant. - Parsimony and comprehensiveness traded off against eachother. - Strive to find the right balance. - *+,,*-*+.+*+.- - Real world problems. - Psychoanalysis, behaviouralism, etc. www.notesolution.com
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