ProfessorMarc A Fournier
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The three frameworks used by psychotherapy, all therepys are very different from
1.Psychodynamic Therapies: discuss conflict in patients —Id and ego
conflicts=anxiety, the psyche responds using unconscious Defenses. The goal of
therapist is to provide blank slate for which patient can project onto them, object to
project underling and unconscious conflicts. The therapist will provide an
Transference — Interpretation of conflicts, the patient then gets insight, patient t —
Resistance (because conflicts) they do not what to see i
2. t Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Antecedent illicit behaviours and have counsequences (either do them again or not) ways of
doing this by 1) Cognitive Restructuring & Behavioral Experiments(ex) social anxious
person will avoid situations and brings relief. Behavioural experiment will test the person
on their beliefs; go out into situation and expose them to show its ok
3.Humanistic / Existential Therapies: idea that there are internalized Conditions of
Worth. Rules that we have to life by. Some of these can be pathological and effect life.
Through: reflection & Unconditional Positive Regard. Everything about you can be
reveals and the self.
•Much research has been done to test which one is best but all reveal no one is better,
Conclusions from the Outcome Literature: No differential efficacy despite technical
diversity. “Everybody has won and all must have prizes” (The Dodo Bird Effect)
•How is this possible? : 1. Suggest literate is wrong, we have yet to detect them, and
measures used in study are flawed. But symptoms are tested and are very reliable.
2. They all have diff. stratagies that seek similar outcome. 3. Common factors to all
therepies (even though claim different) underlying procedures are common therefore
produce the same change
What are these factors in all therapies? Reasearch by William Stiles. He classified
the speech acts in all of the types of therpy:
1.SOURCE OF EXPERIENCE: is outterence by you or therapist 2. FRAME OF
REFERENCE: refers to point of view by speaker or point of view shared with person
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