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Lecture 14

Thorough notes on Lecture 14

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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PSYB30 PersonalityWed, March 9/2011
Lecture 14
Part II (continued)
Needs & Need Satisfaction...(cont)
As well as the 3 Basic Psychological Needs, Deci identified 3 Growth-Promoting Contextual Factors
related to the environment that seem to contribute to the satisfaction of the Basic Psychological Needs
and to personality growth
So basically we can't fulfill the basic needs on their own, we need help from aspects of the
environment
Growth-Promoting Contextual Factors
Autonomy Support
the extent to which the environment offers choices
... to which initiation and innovation are encouraged
... to which the pressure to perform is minimized
these environments are supportive of autonomy (help individuals to feel
autonomous)
Structure
the extent to which the contingencies between behaviours and outcomes are
understandable
so to what extent in an environment do you know/understand that if you behave a
certain way, a certain outcome will follow
to what extent have expectations and guidelines for performance been made clear to you
a well structured environment provides clear expectations and guidelines with
respect to you and your behaviour
to what extent does the environment provide regular and clear feedback with respect to
your behaviour
Structure is important for the satisfaction of one's need for competence. In order to
feel competent, one needs to know what will happen when you go into a situation
and behave certain ways
Involvement
the degree of involvement that significant others show towards you in the context in
question
to what extent do you get the feeling that those in the context care about you, about your
development and your welfare in the environment you're in
depending on the degree in which others express their involvement and care for you,
your needs for relatedness will be met
So there is this triad of contextual factors that contribute to need satisfaction and growth
The ideal context is one that supplies:
autonomy support – a clear set of choices
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a moderate degree of structure – so you can have regular feedback as to your behaviour
involvement – you realize other people are taking a concern for you, for your welfare and
development
Goals & Well-Being
A Plant analogy to make sense of it all
Needs are nutrients essential to a living entity's growth, health, and integrity (Deci & Ryan,
1991)
Plants need water, sunlight and specific minerals. If it doesn't have any one of these things, the
growth, health and integrity of the plant are compromised.
Like plants need water, sunlight and specific minerals, people need autonomy, competence, and
relatedness. Satisfaction of these psychological needs facilitates growth and promotes a sense of
well-being in humans
The only difference is human's likely won't die when deprived of any one of these needs but
our mental status depends on the provision of these psychological nutrients
Internalization
So on one end there are things we undertake due to their intrinsic motivation (its fun to do) and on the
other hand we do things because of external motivations (money, praise, etc...we do them because of
the rewards or punishments attached to them),but self-regulation theorists state that there are a whole
range of motivations between the two main motivations.
Internalization is this psychological process of taking an external regulation and bringing it
inside of the self such that it becomes part of who you are
Internalization is a graded continuum, so it's not like you either internalize something or you
don't. There are degrees to which something becomes internalized
3 levels of internalization:
External Regulation (start of the continuum)
Things we do because we get rewarded for doing them or punished for not doing them
“I'm doing it for the money” or “I'm doing it to stay out of jail
Introjection (1st level of internalization)
the process through which an external regulation becomes partially (not completely)
incorporated inside of the self
we're no longer doing something because there is an external reward/punishment, but
because there is an internal reward, or an internal punishment
doing something because if you don't, you'll feel guilty, worried, anxious, ashamed, etc
what's motivating you now is that there are these feelings inside of you that you're trying
to avoid feeling
i'm doing this because if I don't, I'll feel guilty”
Identification (2nd level of internalization)
When we behave in a way because an extrinsic contingency has now been fully internalized
inside the self
“I'm doing it cuz it's important
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You are doing something because your conscious has deemed it important to do and it's
something you personally value
Integration (or integrated regulation) - (3rd level of internalization)
Something's become fully internalized within you
Acting in accord with a fully internalized extrinsic contingency, which has now been unified
with all of the other motivations and regulations inside of yourself
You've taken something so far into your self (you've made it completely part of who you are)
that everything else about who you are has become reorganized to accommodate this
regulation
If this is all confusing, a helpful way to think about it is to think about a particular kind of
extrinsic behaviour that most of us have internalized, like recycling. There are people who
engage in recycling for all sorts of different reasons
External regulation: you used to litter but stopped because someone scolded you. So you
now recycle to avoid this punishment of social shame
Introjection: We recycle for a slightly deeper-within reason. You were gonna leave a
newspaper on the bus seat but think twice about it because something inside you told you it's
not right. You'd feel guilty for leaving it there so you recycled due to introjection
Identification: Most of us (hopefully) engage in recycling because we find it important.
Most of us have achieved an identified level of internalization when it comes to recycling
Integration: Most of us don't recycle for this reason. We haven't rearranged our who lives to
reduce the amount of garbage we produce. This is something one would be required to do to
have completely internalized/integrated environmentally friendly (recycling) behaviours.
You'd have to change multiple behaviours in multiple contexts.
Self-Determination:
is known by the feeling of authenticity. When people are engaged in self-determined behaviour
(behaviour that is coming from inside), authenticity is the feeling we attach to behaviours that are
expression of our true sense of self and are behaviours for which we assume full responsibility.
It's authentic because we are the authors of the behaviour. The behaviours arewritten”
by us.
They come with the feeling of integrity and cohesion – we don't feel fragmented, we
don't feel split-up. We feel a sense of unity and wholeness when we engage in these self-
determined ways
Being true to ourselves
Definition by Deci:Authenticity, we suggest, is a descriptor for behaviour that is an
expression of the true self and for which one accepts full responsibility. When an action
is endorsed by itsauthor, the experience is that of integrity and cohesion – the
experience is one of being true to one's self. Authenticity is thus self-determination.
(Deci & Ryan, 1991)
A Daily Diary Approach
Study that supports the claim that we require Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness (3 basic
psychological needs) to flourish, and without them, our well-being would be at risk
What happens to well-being as a function of need satisfaction?
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYB30 Personality Wed, March 92011 Lecture 14 Part II (continued) Needs & Need Satisfaction...(cont) As well as the 3 Basic Psychological Needs, Deci identified 3 Growth-Promoting Contextual Factors related to the environment that seem to contribute to the satisfaction of the Basic Psychological Needs and to personality growth So basically we cant fulfill the basic needs on their own, we need help from aspects of the environment Growth-Promoting Contextual Factors Autonomy Support the extent to which the environment offers choices ... to which initiation and innovation are encouraged ... to which the pressure to perform is minimized these environments are supportive of autonomy (help individuals to feel autonomous) Structure the extent to which the contingencies between behaviours and outcomes are understandable so to what extent in an environment do you knowunderstand that if you behave a certain way, a certain outcome will follow to what extent have expectations and guidelines for performance been made clear to you a well structured environment provides clear expectations and guidelines with respect to you and your behaviour to what extent does the environment provide regular and clear feedback with respect to your behaviour Structure is important for the satisfaction of ones need for competence. In order to feel competent, one needs to know what will happen when you go into a situation and behave certain ways Involvement the degree of involvement that significant others show towards you in the context in question to what extent do you get the feeling that those in the context care about you, about your development and your welfare in the environment youre in depending on the degree in which others express their involvement and care for you, your needs for relatedness will be met So there is this triad of contextual factors that contribute to need satisfaction and growth The ideal context is one that supplies: autonomy support a clear set of choices www.notesolution.com
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