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Lecture 15

Thorough Notes on Lecture 15

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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PSYB30 PersonalityMon, March 14/2011
Lecture 15
Overview of Week 9
PART I: Erik Homburger Erikson
PART II: Identity & Intimacy
PART III: Generativity
PART I
Erik Homburger Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
this is a reformulation of Freud's Psychoanalytic model
Freud proposed a model of psycho-sexual development which Erikson reformulated into
a life-long theory of Psycho-social development
STAGES
TASKS/ISSUE
various tasks/issues that each stage presented
VIRTUES/STRENGTHS
various virtues/strengths he imaged we acquired after confronting each of these
challenges successfully
Erik Homburger & Erik Erikson
The Outsider
He was born as Erik Homburger, Jew mother and Protestant father
Father abandoned Erik and mother
Erik found himself accepted by neither community (Jewish or Protestant)
Authors refer to this stage in Erik's life as The Outsider
The Wandering Artist
In his early 20s Erik began travelling Europe as an artist living agypsy lifestyle” (borat
would hate him) and he travelled until age 25 when he landed in Vienna
The Psychoanalyst
Once in Vienna, he takes teaching position in a small school
Trained to become a Psychoanalyst
In order to become a psychoanalyst, you have to undergo psychoanalysis from a therapist
Anna Freud (Freud's daughter) was his therapist
The American
In 1933, with the changing political situation in Vienna, he heads to USA
Assumes many teaching positions at prestigious institutions
In 1939 adopts new name, Erik Erikson
he did it because he was full of himself after all his achievements – his last name,
Erikson, means that he's his own son...his own creator
Fundamental Eriksonian Concepts
Two key ideas that underlie a lot of his thinking:
www.notesolution.com
The Epigenetic Principle: Personality designed to unfold across a predetermined series of
developmental stages
there is a pre-determined sequence of stages that all people must pass through as part of
their development
Each stage confronts us with a particular developmental challenge/task/issue, and this
challenge/task/issue must be confronted
Once confronted, we don't always necessarily succeed, but nonetheless, the challenge
must be confronted
Optimal Time:
For each of these developmental tasks, there is an optimal time, and it is crucial that we
undertake each challenge at the right time
We set ourselves up for developmental failure by taking challenges before we're
ready (mature enough) to face them
So, development cannot rushed, but it cannot be restrained either...it has to proceed
according to its developmental sequence
Virtue:
Upon confronting each psychosocial challenge and resolving it to a reasonably adequate
degree, one acquires a psycho-social strength, what Erikson called, a Virtue
According to Erikson, a Virtue is: A Psycho-social strength that comes from having
adequately addressed a psycho-social challenge
Favorable Balance:
An important aspect of each of these psycho-social virtues is that it must strike a balance
between two tensions
Often, these challenges/tasks involve competing outcomes
Ex: trust vs mistrust (explained in a moment)
There are two alternative outcomes and from an Eriksonian point of view, the Virtue
(strength) is to be found between those two outcomes
One can fail in their developmental challenges either by resolving the conflict too much
one way or the other, leading to either an excess or a deficiency in the particular
characteristic you're intending to acquire
So the failure to resolve a psycho-social challenge will result in either an excess
(which he called a Maladaptation), or a deficiency (which he called a Malignancy)
The goal is to have a perfect balance between the two bad outcomes (excess/deficiency)
to acquire the Virtue
Triple Bookkeeping
The individual's life must be understood on 3 complimentary levels of analysis
There are multiple levels of description when it comes to the individual, and each of
these descriptive levels is needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the
person
The 3 levels are:
The Body (and the various sexual and libidinal urges that are housed within the body)
The Ego – the individual's conscious understanding of the world
Family/Society – the individual's developmental history in its historical, societal and cultural
www.notesolution.com
context
To have a complete understanding of the individual you must have recognize their
Bodily, Ego and Family/Societal functioning
Erikson distinguished himself by having a model of lifespan development. Freud's development
cycle ends by age 6 with the presentation of the Oedipal/Elektra complex. Erikson, however,
imagined development continued well past age 6 and that several stages accompanied one
through adolescence and adulthood
His first several stages can be seen as a reformulation of Freud's comparable stages
Stage I
Infancy (0-1 years)
Issue: Trust vs. Mistrust
Mother's bond with infant during this time is crucial and presents a central question to
the child: How can I be secure?
Ex: can I know that I'll be fed when I'm hungry, will I be comforted when I'm
distressed? Will I receive care and attention, etc?
Will I be able to trust those who are important to me in the world? Or not?
Virtue: Hope
As child is dealing with the challenge, this is the Virtue they're attempting to acquire
Hope is the belief that things will work out in the end
This is a virtue (strength) because it equips the child to face adversity throughout their
life
It assists one in the middle of adversity to know that there will be a positive outcome
at the end
So, this infancy struggle of Trust vs. Mistrust is an attempt to acquire the Virtue of
Hope: the belief in positive outcomes.
Maladaptation: Sensory Distortion
Hope falls between Trust and Mistrust, and there is a Maladaptation that comes from
falling on either side of Hope
To fall in excess (too much trust) would achieve Sensory Distortion: to become
excessively trusting, gullible
It's not as simple to say Trust is good and Mistrust is bad, because leaning on the
side of trust renders one vulnerable to Sensory Distortion
Malignancy: Withdrawal
One can also fail in this developmental task by way of deficiency (too much mistrust),
in which case we develop the Malignancy of Withdrawal
depression, paranoia, suspicion, etc, of others' intentions
Stage II
Toddlerhood (2-3 years)
Issue: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
period of time during which toilet training occurs, child is becoming increasingly mobile
(walking, crawling, standing), and developing language
So there are opportunities for child to develop a sense of mastery and control, but also
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYB30 Personality Mon, March 142011 Lecture 15 Overview of Week 9 PART I: Erik Homburger Erikson PART II: Identity & Intimacy PART III: Generativity PART I Erik Homburger Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development this is a reformulation of Freuds Psychoanalytic model Freud proposed a model of psycho-sexual development which Erikson reformulated into a life-long theory of Psycho-social development STAGES TASKSISSUE various tasksissues that each stage presented VIRTUESSTRENGTHS various virtuesstrengths he imaged we acquired after confronting each of these challenges successfully Erik Homburger & Erik Erikson The Outsider He was born as Erik Homburger, Jew mother and Protestant father Father abandoned Erik and mother Erik found himself accepted by neither community (Jewish or Protestant) Authors refer to this stage in Eriks life as The Outsider The Wandering Artist In his early 20s Erik began travelling Europe as an artist living a gypsy lifestyle (borat would hate him) and he travelled until age 25 when he landed in Vienna The Psychoanalyst Once in Vienna, he takes teaching position in a small school Trained to become a Psychoanalyst In order to become a psychoanalyst, you have to undergo psychoanalysis from a therapist Anna Freud (Freuds daughter) was his therapist The American In 1933, with the changing political situation in Vienna, he heads to USA Assumes many teaching positions at prestigious institutions In 1939 adopts new name, Erik Erikson he did it because he was full of himself after all his achievements his last name, Erikson, means that hes his own son...his own creator Fundamental Eriksonian Concepts Two key ideas that underlie a lot of his thinking: www.notesolution.com
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