PSYB30 Lecture Notes (Lecture 13+14)Week 8 – Self-Determination 1
•The old Psychoanalytic theory in which everything humans do are based on their inner dark
unconsciousness. Behaviorism sees humans as neutral, we aren't good nor evil, we're simply
what we have learned to be (operant conditioning).
•Humanism sees it differently from both of the views above. It has an optimistic view of the
person as inherently good.
All of us come into the world with potentials, and we're designed to realize these
Views the human being as rational, purposeful, and autonomous, capable of creativity
and experiencing deep and profound insights into reality.
Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987)
•Carl Rogers was convinced that there is a single motivation that underline all human
•"The organism has but one basic tendency and striving – to actualize, maintain, and enhance
the experiencing organism. "
•We are all in the process of becoming the person we're meant to be, to realize the potentials
we have in us. There are environment that will help us achieve it, or on the other hand derail
•Rogers said there is a mechanism that informs us whether or not we're making growth
promoting choices -> The Organismic Valuing Process (OVP)
The little voice in our head that tells us what we're doing is right or wrong.
Humans have a fundamental capacity to perceive the growth-relevant implications of
their experiences and choices.
•If we have the environment we need to realize our potentials, and our OVP is working inside
of us, then we are on our road to what Rogers calls The Fully Functioning Person
There are traits that characterize someone that's on the road to the fully functioning.
Openness to Experience -> Not the same as the 5 factor model, it is meant to
characterizes that the fully functiong person is free of the need to defensively distort
the reality they experience. They're able to listen attentively, without anxiety. They
can confront the reality at hand, no need to distort them due to insecurity etc...
Existential Living -> Free to live in the moment. They aren't overwhelmed with
regrets from their past or overwhelmed with their future. They fully appreciate what
the presence has to offer.
Self-Trust -> has the ability the trust themselves. They abide by their OVP telling
them what they should or should not do.
•On Becoming a Person
Positive Regard -> The critical ingredient to becoming the fully functioning person. All
of us have the need to be loved or be accepted, especially at an earlier age. We need to
look at others and see the appreciation and respect they have for us.
Conditions of Worth -> Thus this drives us to change in order to receive or see the
reflection of those appreciations and respects from others.
Conditional Positive Regard -> Love and approval are earned occasionally by meeting
Unconditional Positive Regard -> The councillor must accept the patient and his/her