PSYB30 Lecture Notes (Lecture 15+16)Week 9 – Life Span Development 1
•Erik Erikson took Freud's psychoanalytic theory and made it a life long psycho social theory.
He reconceptualized every stages of Freud's.
•He was borned as a Jewish named Erik Homburger, his father abandoned him and his mom,
and his mom remarried into a different community. Thus Erik Erikson wasn't welcomed in
either one of the communities, hence the name "The Outsider".
•Erik left home and began to travel until the age of 25.
•He adopted the psychoanalyst role, which was a tough job back then, the patients would
often come with their children, thus the clinic would often offer teaching services to the
children brought in by the patients.
•In 1933, seeing the changes in political circumstances in Europe and Germany, he left
German and went to America, he assumes many academic teaching position in institutions
like Harvard etc...
•He adopted the name Erik Erikson in 1939.
Fundamental Eriksonian Concepts
•The Epigenetic Principle -> Personality is designed to unfold across a predetermined series
of developmental stages. Each Stage confronts us with a developmental task or challenge or
issue, this task or challenge must be addressed, although not necessarily succeed. For each
development task, there is an optimal time, and it is crucial that we take on each tasks at the
appropriate time. It cannot be hurried and it cannot be stalled. Upon confronting each task,
one requires a psychosocial strength called "virtue". Each challenge or tasks have 2 opposite
outcome(trust vs mistrust), thus the virtue must keep a balance between the two.
•Triple Bookkeeping -> Individual's life must be understood on three complementary
Body -> Various sexual and libido urges that are housed within the body.
Ego -> Individual's conscious understanding of the world.
Family / Society -> growing up in the 1930s in Vietnam is different than growing up in
the 21st century Toronto.
The Life Span Development
•Freud states that mental development matures and stops at age 6, erik erikson thinks that it
continues onto adulthood.
•Infancy (0-1 Years)
Issue: Trust vs. Mistrust (The mother's bond with the infant is central to the child.)
The virtue that stands out in this stage is Hope. It assists the child later on in life.
Maladaptation: Sensory Distortion (excessively trusting, gullible)
Malignancy: Withdrawl (Depression, paranoia, suspicion)
•Toddlerhood (2-3 Years)
Issue: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt -> This is during the time when toilet training is
taking place, and the learning of self-mastery and control for the child. During this time,
the child is becoming increasingly mobile (able to walk etc). During ths time, there are
many opportunities for succession and failure.
Maladaptation: Impulsivity (Shameless willfullness)
Malignancy: Compulsion (Self-doubting and perfectionistic)