Lecture 16 – Personality
Freud: you have to solve one stage to move on to the next
Erikson: you will move on regardless of whether you have succeeded or failed
we move on from one stage to the next because society expects us to.
Process of Identity Formation
Challenge to childhood viewpoints
Investigation of alternative viewpoints
Resolution of exploratory phase
Adoption of adult ideology, social role(s)
4 possible statuses that emerge with the challenge of identity
Achievement: Explored & Committed
Religion, politics, career
Identity achievement: higher grades in college, score higher in TAT measures of
non-conforming to peer pressure and social norms
Morotorium: Ongoing Exploration & No Commitments
In Marcea interviews, they're undecided; searchers
Have not yet committed
Anxious & frienly, likeable, sensitive and insightful
neurortic but agreeable
Foreclosure: Committed & No exploration
Constant reference to family and parents' values.
Evidence of commitment but nothing about exploratory behaviour.
Conventional, traditional, diligent, authoritorian ideologies
Diffusion: No Commitment & No exploration
Low evidence of exploration & reflection
Identity is followed by the issue of intimacy
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Virtue: Love : capacity to put aside differences
Excess: Promiscuoity – intimate too quickly, superficially
Defficiency: Exclusion – isolating oneself
Intimacy: For Erikson, it meant opening up to ANYTHING outside of ourselves. It included
romantic partner, but also self-disclosure we engage in, in friendships.
Intimacy in psychotherapy
•one's relationship to oneself, self-discovery, connecting with your own self, etc.