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Lecture

PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Mental Model, Child Neglect, Dazed


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler

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PSYB20
Attachment
all of these different attachment theories try to explain how and reason for these significant
attachment w/ each having
ethological approach)
o ethological approach - borrow from other approaches
Behaviourist and Psychoanalytical Approach
= importance
of feeding behaviour to attachment
feeding behaviour - in drive reduction motivation w/ feeding important for 2 reason:
o 1) elicit positive response from infants which will increase the caregiver affection for
infants ( = increase caregiver affection)
o 2) Mother will able to relax w/ infant & provide infant all sorts of comfort along w/ food,
warmth, soft touches, and reassuring tones etc. all of which occurs in single setting
infant then associate all pleasurable sensation w/ that individual mom becomes primary
source of reinforcement
feeding is important in terms of building relationship BUT attachment does not imprt w/
huger
o e.g. experiment by Harlow & Zimmerman (1959) - HARLOW's monkey 2 mothers w/
one having bottle & wire (=food provider) and 2nd mother made out of soft cloth
(=provided contact comfort) monkeys seek out contact mother for comfort not the
food provider for attachment
this shows the opposite to drive reduction model from behaviourist
ALSO - infant attached to other inanimate object that is not providing food e.g. favourite
blankets, teddy bear especially appreciate soft object when expose to unfamiliar situation
importance of cuddly object they help manage the stress of unfamiliar object & act as
substitute for important people in w/ that object
o Experiment Blanket Attachment & Play bought infants in w/ one group who hand
blanket attached vs. non-attached put them in 4 situation & measure how much time
spent in exploring room (=mean duration of play)
w/ mom - best situation
w/ favourite blanket
w/ toys

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2nd study put the children in a scary room
o in this case only time they were comfortable - only w/ mom not blanket in mild
stressful blanket helps
Alternative Behaviourist Model = Operant Conditioning Model
o Infants looks, smile, and seek proximity because mom reciprocates w/ reward to this w/
simile and hugs w/ greater number of behaviours is reinforced by this particular
person, the more one is attached to that person
o This model moves past feeding & hugging BUT by itself not adequate
The problem w/ this is that attachment occurs even in serious abuse situation
e.g. Harlow - took bunch of mother monkeys who are socially derived as child
and after they grew up these mother are abusive to their young but young
still approach to mother to have comfort contact ( can see similar observation in
human children as well)
Behaviour approach also does not explain why attachment relationship still persists when
attached figure not present because if attachment is due to reinforcement then attachment
should have disappear if not reinforce thus, behaviour approach ignore idea there is stable
representation of attachment figure despite prolong absence
Psychoanalytic Approach
According to Freud - we are motivated by basic drive (= similar to behaviourist drive reduction
theory)
chid becomes attached to the person that reduce basic drive e.g. individual (typically mom)
that reduce hunger, thirst ( similar to basis of attachment is behaviour approach
o relationship w/ Mom they prototype for romantic relationships throughout life
In his view the child is passive in this process --> what is done to the child
Erickson ‘s Approach he developed stages:
Experimental Condition
Mean Duration of Play
Blanket Attached
Blanket Non-Attached
Mother Blanket Toy No Object
- kinds w/ attached blanket acted
similar pattern as when mom was w/
them vs. non-attached who didn’t
play w/ object at
- mom condition is best w/ both
group playing/exploring of object
- so for blanket attached blanket
is acting as substitute for mom

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1st developmental stage ( birth 1 year) - basic issue being faced by child is Trust vs. Mistrust
infant is concern w/ who in the world they can trust & children become attached who they can
trust ( who they trust are individual who reliably administered to needs)
o important aspect to this approach is this is not just mom reduces drive & but it is also
the way in which the mom forested trust
overall responsiveness ( e.g. Style of feeding is important) of mom trust
provide emotional support and turn to outside environment
in many ways , it is richer perceptive than behaviour approach it also brings other aspect of
mom-infant relationship
idea that nature of relationship has large impact on personality and later relationship
limitation - drive reduction (at initial theory of Freud’s)
o also it stresses that baby is passive in this relationship & is all about what mom does to
the baby
o BUT we known that infant does bring something to relationship (= particular
temperament)
Alternative 3rd view - Cognitive Developmental Approach
It has little to say which adults are most likely that infant is going to become attached
Say that ability to form attachment rely on intellectual functioning of child need basic
cognitive skills to form attachement
o E.g. discriminate b/w familiar and unfamiliar people & Object permanent that mom
continue to exist even when you don’t see her
Object permeance comes around 8-10 months old
thus timing of attachment & timing of cognitive development have to be sync
there is evidence to support this - e.g. 9 month old object peromance achieved
& this is when stronger attachment is formed measured by stronger separation
protest from infant
Limitation w/ this approach it doesn't tell us about who does the child attached to or why it
becomes attached & much more limited in the conceptualization of attachment
Overall - all three theories -have something but all have limitation
Ethological Approach
currently this is generally and theoretically accepted for idea or process of attachment
this theory initially inspired by classic work in ethology work by Laurens in imprinting
o young birds have this critical period of development where it establish who is mom &
follow her around follow mom around & once establish it becomes difficult to modify
o imprinting is fundamentally adaptive because it bring birds proximity of mother &
increase survival for that young bird
Bowlby - founder of modern day attachment work
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