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Lecture 12

lecture 12 Gender Roles.pdf

Course Code
Mark Schmuckler

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Gender Role Development
I. Introduction
A. Categorizing males and females
1. Sex-role standards or stereotypes
2. Cross-cultural trends
C. Facts and fictions about sex differences
1. Sex differences that appear to be real
2. Cultural myths
IV. Developmental trends in sex typing
A. Development of Gender Identity
1. Discrimination of male versus female
2. Development of gender constancy
C. Acquiring Gender-role Stereotypes
D. Development of Gender-typed Behavior
II. Theories of sex-typing and gender role development
A. The biological approach
B. The psychoanalytic approach
C. Social learning theory
1. Direct tuition
2. Observational learning
C. Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory
D. Martin & Halverson’s gender schema theory

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Categorizing Males and Females
Sex-role or gender-role standards:
A value, motive, or class of behavior that is considered more
appropriate for members of one gender than the other
Reflect the stereotypes by which we categorize and respond to
members of each gender
Girls and the expressive role - involves being kind, nurturing,
cooperative, sensitive to others. Traits assumed to be important
for girls as they grow up to take on typical female role in
society = woman as mother, wife, keeps family functioning.
Boys and the instrumental role - task of providing for family,
protecting family from harm. Boys are encouraged to become
dominant, independent, assertive, competitive = make it
possible to make a living, an intermediary between society and
How typical are these views across societies? Next slide.
Basic genetic difference underlying gender differences and lead to
how parents treat them. There is more to gender then biological
heritage. Children must understand gender and include it in idea of
self concept- sex-typing - identify with gender identity, the process
by which a child acquires these sex-role standards.

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Gender Typing in
Non-Industrialized Societies
Sex differences in the socialization of five attributes
in 110 non-industrialized (non-Western) societies
Percent of societies in which
socialization pressures were
greater for:
Attribute Boys Girls
Nuturance 0 82
Obediance 3 35
Responsibility 11 61
Achievement 87 3
Self-Reliance 85 0
Source: Barry, Bacon, & Child (1957)
In Western societies, same pressures but not to same
extent as non-western societies.
Anatomical/biological differences between
genders. How about differenences as a
function of psychological behavior?
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